Inflammation of the appendix in the medical language is called appendicitis. Removal of the appendix, according to statistics, is the most common operation on the abdominal cavity. Pathology can develop at any age, but is most often diagnosed at the age of 10 to 30 years.
Most people who are concerned about abdominal pain are wondering which side of the appendicitis is and what symptoms indicate it. This is due to the fact that neglect of the inflamed appendix often ends in death or the development of life-threatening complications. Removal surgery itself is uncomplicated.
Many underestimate the severity of the disease, which entails the development of undesirable consequences.
Which side is appendicitis?
First of all, you should pay attention to the fact that appendicitis is a pathology, and not an appendix of the cecum. Some are interested in many questions, for example, in which side the appendix is located, on the right or left abdomen, and whether there can be exceptions.
With inflammation, the pain syndrome affects the upper abdomen. Sometimes - under the ribs and / or liver.
Despite the prevalence of the disease, the exact causes of appendicitis have not yet been identified. Possible provocative factors include the following: obstruction of the lumen of the cecum, damage by pathogenic / pathogenic microorganisms.
The nature of pain in a classic attack of appendicitis
An acute onset is characteristic of the disease. A person against the background of general well-being suddenly feels abdominal pains, some wake up at night from sudden pains. In some patients, they are immediately localized in the iliac region on the right.
In ½ cases, pain with appendicitis occurs around the navel or throughout the abdomen, begins with the epigastric zone, and after a few hours moves to the iliac region. This symptom is called a symptom of Kocher, is considered typical for destructive appendicitis. With other diseases, it is practically not observed.
The intensity of pain is moderate, in adults, the general condition does not change much. There is no forced situation. They are permanent but tolerant. This is due to the focus of inflammation in the appendicular process. Gradually, the intensity increases.
The pains are reduced or temporarily relieved by drugs with an analgesic effect, then they arise again. When thinking about what to do in such a situation, people often apply a heating pad to their stomach.
This causes irreparable harm. The inflammatory process becomes more intense and goes to the peritoneum. The patient is admitted to the hospital with signs of gangrenous appendicitis and peritonitis.
In the first stage of the disease, palpation of the abdomen is soft and soreness is clearly defined in the iliac region on the right, destruction (rupture of the wall) is accompanied by signs of peritonitis:
- abdominal muscles are tense (rigid),
- the right side lags behind when breathing.
If the patient develops a phlegmonous form of appendicitis with the formation of empyema, the pains are immediately localized in the iliac region on the right, but develop more slowly in time.The disease reaches a maximum of manifestations within a few days.
On average, by 3-5 days, the nature of the pain with appendicitis changes to a pulsating one (complaints that “twitch in the side”). The general condition progressively worsens against a background of high temperature.
Causes and factors provoking appendicitis
Appendicitis does not choose people, everyone is subject to its occurrence - regardless of gender and age. The exact reasons for its appearance have not yet been established - for each person they are individual, it is impossible to single out the only reason for all patients. Main factorscapable of provoking this ailment are:
- clogging of the appendix at the entrance to the rectum, which leads to inflammation of the walls of the appendix. It can be caused by various foreign bodies, poorly digested food, petrified feces and the presence of adhesions,
- the presence of pathogenic bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci and Escherichia coli), which, when the immunity of the appendix is weakened, successfully penetrate the mucous membrane of the organ,
- the presence of fusobacteria in the appendix, capable of causing serious purulent-inflammatory processes in a very short time,
- intestinal diseases caused by infections and parasites (tuberculosis, typhoid fever).
- predisposition of the body to frequent constipation (contaminated intestines - the best place to activate bacteria),
- malnutrition high in protein and inadequate plant foods, overeating,
- abdominal injuries, heredity.
Which side is the appendix in humans?
The appendix is located in the projection of the right ileal region and is a continuation of the cecum. The cecum is about 8 cm long and 7 cm wide, and the vermiform appendix is no more than 1 cm wide, and the cecum is equal in length, that is, about 7-8 cm. Each appendix can have its own location , and its exact topography has a crucial role for the surgeon at the time of surgery to choose the most convenient access to the organ. According to statistics, annually about 300 thousand operations to remove the appendix are carried out erroneously due to an initially incorrect diagnosis.
The nature of pain with an attack of appendicitis
The most common symptom indicating inflammation of the appendix is pain. It can hurt in different ways, based on the location, intensity and nature of the pain, doctors make a preliminary diagnosis.
The inflammatory process always proceeds the same way, only the area of pain will depend on the characteristics of the anatomical structure of the appendix. Unpleasant sensations in the abdominal cavity are clearly felt when pressure is applied to the abdomen, especially at the site of localization of inflammation. To the touch, it becomes hard and swollen. The patient cannot find a comfortable place for himself, it hurts him to sit and stand.
When examining a patient with complaints of abdominal pain, doctors check the symptoms of irritation of the anterior abdominal wall and parietal peritoneum. Pain with appendicitis is provoked by concussion, coughing, walking. They do not stay long within the projection of the appendix. The main reason is the involvement of peritoneum in inflammation.
There are recognized and proven by practice symptoms, which are fixed by the names of the authors. They are especially valuable in diagnostics, since they were offered in an era without other possibilities for examining the patient.
Here are the most commonly used signs by surgeons:
- Shchetkina-Blumberg - a slow pressure is applied by hand in the iliac region on the right, then it is interrupted by a quick movement, at this moment the pain with appendicitis may intensify.
- Razdolsky - percussion (easy striking) of the inflated abdomen, which stimulates pain, is performed.
- Voskresensky - a shirt or a patient’s shirt is stretched adjacent to the stomach, with the other hand, the doctor holds in the direction from the epigastrium to the iliac region on the right and left. The pain intensifies when the arm is above the iliac region on the right. This symptom is associated with overflow of vessels of the appendix, therefore it is positive until the development of peritonitis.
- Sitkovsky - local pain intensifies if the patient assumes a lying position on his left side.
- Rowza - the doctor makes jerky movements in the left ileal zone. In this case, the edge of the palm squeezes the sigmoid colon in the lower part. There is a reverse movement of the contents of the large intestine, the pressure inside the cecum and the appendix is increased, which intensifies the pain.
Symptoms of Appendicitis
The localization of severe pain in acute inflammation of the appendix will depend on where the appendicitis is located in humans.
Almost everyone knows which side the appendix is on: in most patients it is located on the right side, between the navel and the ilium. There are infrequent localization of the appendix in the lower pelvis or right hypochondrium. Well, very rare cases - left-sided arrangement of organ in “mirror people”.
The attack begins with dull pain (the main symptom) in the navel, with a frequent difficulty in determining its location. Wandering acute pain lasts up to 10-12 hours, and then the pain syndrome moves directly to the location of the appendix. Also, pain can give in the hypochondrium, lower back, inguinal region and leg
Additional common symptoms:
- fever up to 38 degrees, chills,
- a person has a wet tongue with a light coating,
- diarrhea or constipation, nausea, frequent vomiting,
- fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, palpitations,
- a decrease in pain intensity depending on the position of the body, intensification of the pain syndrome during sneezing and coughing.
Although the majority of signs of appendicitis in men and women have much in common, there are still certain features of the symptoms in each category. This is a great help in conducting accurate and high-quality diagnostics.
It is quite difficult to diagnose appendix inflammations in the female population, because appendicitis symptoms in adult women are very similar to pain of a gynecological origin. At the beginning of an attack, pains are aching and pulling, giving to the left or right sidein the area of the ribs. To exclude gynecology, attention should be paid to additional symptoms, which are almost never present in "female" diseases.
Signs of appendicitis in adult women:
- increased pain symptoms when coughing and laughing, difficulty walking (due to the spread of pain),
- vomiting, excruciating nausea and diarrhea,
- hard stomach (wall tension due to the inflammatory process),
- loss of appetite, general weakness, raising body temperature to 38 degrees,
- in most cases, the time of onset of an attack is closer to evening or night (occurs spontaneously, without any precursors).
Cases of appendicitis during pregnancy are very common, because an enlarged uterus puts pressure on all nearby organs (not excluding the appendix), disrupting their normal blood supply.
Most symptoms of inflammation of the appendix in pregnant women (heaviness in the lower abdomen, “stone stomach”, constant nausea, shortness of breath) are perceived as the norm of physiological processes in expectant mothers, which very often leads to untimely diagnosis of appendicitis.
Symptoms in adult men also have specific signs:
- localization of pain throughout the abdomen,
- frequent discomfort in the anus,
- increased pain when raising the right leg or arm,
- exacerbation of pain when trying to jump on one right leg,
- adherence to the right side of the abdomen due to pain during coughing, sneezing, changing body position.
The role of the appendix in the body
For a long time, the appendix was considered a "superfluous organ" in the human body, the removal of which did not affect the work of internal organs and systems. This could be confirmed by the fact that after the appendectomy the operated people did not complain of any deterioration in their health.
After numerous studies, including immunological and histological studies, it was found that the appendix is extremely important and there is not one extra organ in the human body. The appendix is directly involved in such important processes:
- affects the functioning of the immune system and increases the body's resistance to infections - there are a lot of lymphoid tissue in the walls of the vermiform appendix,
- improves intestinal motility due to the production of certain hormones,
- takes part in the synthesis of amylase, an enzyme of the digestive function that breaks down starch.
If the appendix is so important, then why do people who have it removed have no health problems? The absence of disturbances in the functioning of internal organs and systems is explained by the inclusion of compensatory reactions, that is, the functions of the remote appendix are “taken upon” by other organs. Despite the fact that the constancy of the internal among after the operation is maintained at the proper level, the lack of an appendix reduces the so-called safety margins of the immune system.
Causes of appendicitis
The following reasons for the development of inflammation of the appendix are distinguished:
- The combination of mechanical blockage of the lumen of the appendix and activation of intestinal microflora. Occlusion can be caused by fecal stones, enlarged lymphoid follicles, a foreign body (accidentally swallowed), tumor formation, accumulation of parasites. At the place of occurrence of such a “plug”, mucus accumulates, microorganisms actively multiply. Inside the lumen, blood pressure rises, blood vessels are compressed, outflow of blood and lymph is disturbed. Result: inflammation and necrosis of the appendix.
- According to some reports, the risk of developing appendicitis is higher in people suffering from stool retention for many years. Due to the slow movement of feces along the digestive tract, fecal stones more often appear in such people.
- The same can be said about those people whose diet is saturated with protein foods and poor in fiber. Fiber facilitates the promotion of intestinal contents, improves peristalsis.
- Vascular theory suggests that systemic vasculitis (vasculitis - inflammation of the vascular wall) is considered the cause of appendicitis.
- Infectious theory has not received either confirmation or denial. It is believed that some infectious diseases (for example, typhoid fever) can independently provoke the development of appendicitis.
How does stomach ache with appendicitis?
Appendicitis in all people can manifest itself in different ways: it largely depends on the age, gender and location of the appendix. In the majority, it is located on the right side, between the ilium and the navel - the most painful sensations appear in this place. Sometimes the appendage is located near the right hypochondrium or in the lower part of the pelvis. There are cases when the appendix is localized on the left, but they are extremely rare and relate to people born with a mirror arrangement of organs.
A slight dull pain first appears in or near the navel, does not have an exact place and is permanent. Pain of this kind lasts from 6 to 12 hours, after which the pain goes to the immediate location of the appendix. In some cases, the appendage can hurt at the level of the hypochondrium, in the inguinal region, to give to the leg - it all depends on the individual location of the organ.Then nausea, vomiting may begin, a slight temperature may rise (up to 38).
Another sign of appendicitis is a wet tongue with a white coating. During coughing or sneezing, the pain intensifies many times, and when you change the position of the body, it subsides. Often, people confuse appendix inflammation with another disease, especially if the patient has problems with the kidneys, liver, and men with the bladder.
In most cases, the appendix is localized between the right ilium and the umbilicus, in the middle, the most painful sensation arises here. However, depending on physiology, the appendix can be raised to the right hypochondrium or lowered to the lower part of the pelvis. In the first case, the pain syndrome will occur closer to the liver, in the second case, the manifestation of the disease in men can be confused with inflammation of the bladder, and in women - appendages.
When the appendix is located behind the cecum, wrapped in the ureter and kidney, the pain manifests itself in the groin, pelvic area and gives to the leg, therefore, when asked by the doctor about where it hurts, appendicitis can be detected almost immediately, which means the treatment will not force itself wait a long time. Pain in a disease occurs suddenly, and with each passing hour their intensity increases. In an acute attack of appendicitis, a sharp and unbearable pain occurs, like colic.
The pain syndrome in the patient will continue until the nerve endings die, when it happens, the pains subside, but this is not a reason to postpone a visit to the doctor, appendicitis will not pass just like that - the patient should be hospitalized immediately.
When pain occurs, appendicitis can be diagnosed in one of the following ways:
- Sitkovsky's test is that the patient initially lies on his right side, after which he turns over to his left. Symptoms should completely stop or subside on the right side. When turning to the left side, the intensity of pain increases.
- Symptom Obraztsova. The patient should take a horizontal position and straighten his legs. Later it is necessary to carefully lift the right unbent leg. If a person has an inflamed appendix, the intensity of the pain will increase significantly. With advanced forms of pathology, the patient may not be able to cope with the task at all.
- Roving's test is that during palpation it is necessary to palpate carefully the side where the appendix is located. Manipulations should be jerky. During pressing, the pain should not occur, it occurs during the release of the hand.
In order not to jeopardize the patient’s health in surgery, it is customary to treat appendicitis or cholecystitis conservatively for 24 hours. If the pain does not disappear, operate, the diagnosis will be made only during the operation.
Reasons for development
Inflammation of the appendix is always provoked by pathogenic bacteria - staphylococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli, anaerobic bacteria that fall on the mucous membrane of the appendix and begin to actively multiply there. However, to activate the pathogenic flora and the development of the inflammatory process, concomitant factors are necessary, which can be local, general or social:
- narrowing or complete blockage of the mouth of the vermiform appendix with undigested food, calculi, tangles of worms, tumors, polyps or other neoplasms, as a result of which complete blood circulation in the cecum is disturbed and stagnant processes develop in the vermiform appendix,
- appendix vascular thrombosis, which leads to stagnation and necrotic tissue changes,
- spasm or stretching of the walls of the appendix, resulting in increased peristalsis and mucus formation at a reflex level.
- violation of the diet, the predominance in the diet of exclusively carbohydrate or protein foods,
- chronic inflammatory processes in the stomach, pancreas, gall bladder, intestines,
- allergic reactions and disorders in the functioning of the immune system.
- living in an unfavorable ecological environment with low social conditions - the inability to wash their hands thoroughly and monitor cleanliness in general, a high risk of infection with worms,
- chronic nervous stress.
The combination of 3 risk factors at once leads to the rapid and active reproduction of pathogens in the appendix, as a result of which purulent appendicitis develops.
Which side of the appendicitis?
Appendix is a small process of the cecum. In most people, it is located on the right side of the abdomen, below the navel. On which side of the person’s appendicitis can affect the state of the intestine. If appendicular peritonitis has developed, then the symptoms are pronounced clearly and acutely, the localization of appendicitis pains from the right side, as a rule, is typical for the development of an acute inflammatory process in the patient’s body, which requires emergency medical attention and appendix removal surgery.
Appendicitis can be located in different ways in the area of the peritoneum, which gives an ambiguous picture in the localization of symptoms, pain can be given both to the right side and to the lower back, or to the pelvic area, of the patient's genitals. The nature of pain has a different intensity, intensifying or subsiding, cramping, can last as a long time or for a short time.
How to recognize a seizure in a child
The symptoms of an inflamed intestinal process in children are difficult to recognize, especially when the child cannot explain the pain in which area he is concerned. Taking this into account, each parent should be careful when disturbing symptoms disturb his child.
Acute appendicitis is the most common pathology of the abdominal cavity, requiring immediate surgical ...
Consider the main signs indicating the presence of an inflammatory process in the appendix in children:
- Pain in the abdominal cavity (the child, as a rule, lies on the side in which he feels the most pronounced discomfort, does not allow parents to touch him).
- There are problems with bowel movements, especially on the first day (most often the parents of small patients complain of severe diarrhea).
- Nausea and possible severe vomiting at the level of reflexes.
- The integuments change their color, most often acquire pallor or cyanosis.
- Elevated body temperature, which cannot be brought down with the help of antipyretic drugs.
Clinical stages of appendicitis
Due to the individual anatomical features of the location of the appendix, there are several clinical forms of this inflammation:
- Acute appendicitis:
- catarrhal (damage to the process mucosa)
- phlegmonous (damage to the submucosal layer, accumulation of pus)
- gangrenous (necrosis of the walls of the appendix)
- perforated (destruction of the walls of the appendix, leakage of pus into the abdominal cavity)
- Chronic (primary or recurrent),
- inflammation of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis),
- the concentration of pus in the peritoneum (abscess),
- inflammation of the portal hepatic vein,
- appendicular infiltrate (fused with each other organs adjacent to the appendix).
Where is the appendix in the body?
If you doubt where the person’s appendicitis is located, remember: in almost all people, with the exception of the rarest cases, the appendix is on the right - strong pain is localized there. To determine the inflammation, you can conduct a self-diagnosis, but you must do this carefully so as not to make worse or not lead to rupture of the appendix. How to diagnose appendicitis:
- Gently push with your fingertips in the area of the ilium on the right side. Observe whether pain on palpation intensifies.If so, then the likelihood of appendicitis is high. For comparison, try palpating the mirror area on the left side. If the appendix is inflamed, then on the left there will be minimal pain syndrome or its complete absence.
- Try to cough slightly. When coughing, pain during appendicitis should intensify.
- To diagnose acute appendicitis, lightly press the palm on the ilium. Hold for ten seconds. If the pain begins to weaken, and after withdrawal of the arm intensifies, it is most likely an inflammation of the appendix.
- Try to cross on your left side. The pain should be less. If the pain becomes stronger when you turn to the right side and straighten your legs, this is a sign of appendicitis.
- Remember that even if the diagnosis does not indicate acute appendicitis, you should be safe and seek medical examination. This will not hurt, but will avoid serious consequences in case of an inflammatory process in the appendix without surgical intervention.
The appendix is a small, 7-10 cm long, vermiform appendix located at the end of the cecum. Although it produces intestinal juice, in such a small amount that it remains invisible for digestion. For a long time, the appendix was considered a human evolutionary error, and if possible it was removed, but after a while it was found that it contains lymphoid cells that play the role of protecting the body - such are in the tonsils. Following from this, there was an opinion that the appendix is part of the body's defense system.
It was later proved that the number of lymphoid cells in it is small, and they do not provide special assistance to the immune system. To this day, doctors believe that the harm from the appendix is greater than the benefit - if it is inflamed with untimely assistance to the human body, significant damage can be done.
The first signs of appendicitis give pain symptoms precisely from the side where the person has appendicitis.
Usually it is on the right, below the peritoneum. The abdomen swells and becomes hard on palpation. The pain intensifies in movement, with coughing and sneezing.
Discomfort gives a clear picture of pain when pressed from the side where the inflammation is localized. A characteristic feature - a sharp pain appears when pressure is weakened by hand.
The patient’s tongue at this time has a white coating. It is difficult for the patient to stand and walk, relief comes only when the person lies down, pulling his legs to his stomach.
How to determine appendicitis, a specialist knows. He is additionally manifested by signs:
- high temperature, up to 38 0 С,
- periodic vomiting, nausea,
- back pain.
In some embodiments of the disease, the patient is concerned with diarrhea with painful urges to defecate, which are often false.
It is not enough to know in which side the person has appendicitis. It is necessary to remember all the manifestations in order to correctly tell the doctor about them.
Then the doctor will make the correct picture of the disease and u will make the correct diagnosis. This is possible with timely access to medical care.
If appendicitis develops, the symptoms in adult women are similar to the symptoms of inflammation of the appendages.
A specialist can distinguish manifestations, which is especially important for a woman in the early stages of pregnancy, when serious complications can arise.
In childhood, the symptoms of appendicitis differ from inflammation of the intestinal process in adults.
It depends on the fact that in the children's body the lymphoid tissue of the appendix is still underdeveloped, and is more prone to destructive changes.
In young children, on which side the appendicitis is located, doctors determine for sure: it is localized retrocircularly or under the liver.
It also distinguishes the symptoms of pathology from the manifestations of the disease in adults. For children, signs are characteristic:
- the temperature rises to subfebrile indicators,
- urination and vomiting are impaired,
- tachycardia appears
- lethargy, fatigue,
- the child is very worried, cries, refuses to eat, does not sleep.
Children's age is characterized by the rapid development of signs and symptoms of appendicitis. It all starts with pain in the epigastric region, with a gradual lowering of discomfort in the main location of the process.
Pain on the right abdomen, but do not stay in one place, but spread to the entire peritoneum, is reflected in the lower back.
The danger of the disease lies in the high risk of penetration of inflammatory agents into the blood.
Therefore, the first symptoms of abdominal pain should be the basis for visiting a doctor.
The appendix is a part of the cecum. Where is a person’s appendicitis, he wonders when there is discomfort in the abdomen, pain.
What methods to recognize the inflammation of appendicitis, not to confuse it with another disease of the internal organs, only an experienced specialist knows.
Indeed, often the symptoms are very similar to the manifestation of gastrointestinal diseases, kidneys. A competent diagnosis always helps to timely determine inflammation of the intestinal process, because such a pathology is not uncommon in medical practice, and the doctor knows that immediate surgical care is required here.
When appendicitis is suspected, symptoms in women require confirmation from the gynecologist that the reproductive organs are healthy. Then the doctor is sure that the pain is caused by inflammation of the appendix.
The anatomical features of the appendix in some citizens have its expressively large size. In this regard, the length of the mesentery increases.
Inflammation of a large organ gives symptoms of bowel disease, and only an experienced ultrasound specialist will see the true cause of the pain, as appendicitis hurts.
The main causes of the development of the disease are:
- pathology of the digestive canal,
- frequent stresses
- falling into the cavity of the appendix of the husk of seeds, grape seed, hard pieces of feces,
- abdominal injuries.
First aid is still at home, awaiting the arrival of ambulance doctors. However, you should know exactly what is possible and what is not.
Otherwise, you can harm the sick person, or smear the picture of the disease, making it difficult for doctors to accurately diagnose the emergency room in the hospital.
The first signs of appendicitis always scare both a sick person and his family members. You need to know which side appendicitis can hurt, where the appendix is located, so as not to confuse the symptoms with the manifestation of another disease.
When pain occurs, it is necessary to provide the sick person with complete rest, put him to bed, call an ambulance.
It is impossible to give the patient any medicine before the arrival of specialists, so as not to complicate the determination of the diagnosis.
Causes of the disease
The appendix is a vermiform appendix of the cecum, which is part of the immune system because it contains immune cells. Everyone should know which side of the appendicitis is in order not to miss the acute stage of the disease.
So, on which side is the appendix located in the stomach? The appendix is located closer to the right side of the lower abdomen, in the iliac region, gradually descending to the small pelvis. In some cases, it can be located behind the cecum and reach the liver with its upper part. The length of the appendix can vary from 0.5 to 23 cm. The standard size is 7-8 cm. The width, as a rule, does not exceed 1 cm.
Inflammation in this area develops due to a number of factors:
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
- infectious processes in the digestive system,
- clogging with undigested food particles or feces,
- strong mobility of the appendix (most often observed in children).
Pain syndrome with appendicitis in pregnant women and children
During pregnancy, appendicitis can occur at any time. Pain can be mistaken for a threatened miscarriage. In the second half, the growth of the uterus causes a displacement of the dome of the cecum up. Localization of pain moves higher to the right hypochondrium. On palpation, difficulties arise.
Hidden signs of pain should be sought when the appendix is located behind the uterus. Then the pain in the abdomen is slight.
The risk of erroneous diagnosis is growing. In children, pain is rarely localized, quickly spread along the abdominal wall, and manifests as contractions.
The disease proceeds as an infectious gastroenteritis, dysentery. Damage to the stomach is assumed. Behind the turbulent course, it is difficult to detect signs of peritoneal irritation. In old age, on the contrary, abdominal pain is not very intense. Muscle tension of the abdominal wall may be absent even with destructive forms.
How does appendicitis hurt?
The very first and earliest sign of inflammation of the appendix is pain. Painful sensations arise spontaneously, without preliminary other signs of any disease and are first localized in the navel, and a few hours (up to 1-2 days) after the progression of the inflammatory process, they move to the area of the right ileal zone.
The nature of the pain with appendicitis is not sharp and excessively intense, but disturbing, constant, intensified by coughing, entering, and changing body position. In order to alleviate the discomfort, the patient often lies on his back with legs bent at the knees.
Signs of appendicitis
There are many different signs of appendicitis in adults and children. The signal for the onset of the disease is severe pain. At the very beginning, it does not have a relatively clear location. It may seem to a person that his stomach just hurts. However, after 4-5 hours, the pain concentrates closer to the right iliac region.
It is worth noting that the appendix for different people can be located in different ways, it all depends on the structure of the body. If the process has a normal position, then the pain will be observed in the right iliac region. If the process is located slightly higher, then the pain will be on the right under the ribs. Well, well, if the process is lowered down, it will hurt in the pelvic area. In addition, the patient may be disturbed by vomiting, and in some cases diarrhea.
Among the other popular signs of appendicitis are the following: dry tongue, dark urine, fever, which can reach 40 degrees, pregnant women may experience increased pain during a turn from the left side to the right.
The exact causes of the development of the inflammatory process have not yet been established, however, doctors have developed preventive measures that significantly reduce the likelihood of developing appendicitis.
If you have one of these symptoms, you can not take painkillers or inject injections that relieve pain for a long time. These medications make the symptoms of the disease unclear and prevent a correct diagnosis.
The inflamed appendix bursts over time, and its purulent contents pour into the abdominal cavity. After this, it is impossible to save the patient.
In some patients, appendicitis is determined by other signs. Many people begin to feel appendicitis as an upset stomach, which is accompanied by diarrhea, chills, fever. The appetite can greatly decrease, a feeling of weakness, fatigue. In rarer cases with appendicitis, the following symptoms develop:
- Temperature is above 38 degrees
- Constant feeling of chills
- Severe vomiting
- False urge to defecate, accompanied by severe pain,
- Increased urge to urinate.
If these symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor or call an ambulance. Before the arrival of doctors, you should not use painkillers - this can complicate the diagnosis. It is not recommended to drink or eat. In no case should you have a thermal effect in place of appendicitis (heating pads, hot water bottles) - this can aggravate the situation and lead to even more inflammation of the appendix. Do not cancel the trip to the doctor if the pain has sharply decreased or stopped, this most likely serves as a signal that the situation has become worse.
It may seem to patients that the disease arose spontaneously, since appendicitis hurts almost suddenly, however, the following factors can provoke the development of the disease:
- Past injuries in the abdomen.
- Inflammatory processes in the digestive tract.
- Food Infectious Processes.
- Clogged lumen of the appendix with undigested food particles or feces, constipation.
- Excessive appendix mobility, often seen in children.
Only a doctor can most accurately determine why appendicitis hurts, and cope with the disease in a timely manner.
The development of the inflammatory process proceeds gradually - within a few hours the process swells, after which pus begins to accumulate in it. In case of a sudden occurrence in the abdominal cavity, even if the patient does not know how appendicitis hurts, you should contact an ambulance. If you stay inactive for 2-3 days, you can get a rupture of the process with subsequent discharge of purulent mass into the abdominal cavity, subsequently peritonitis may form, and there is a high risk of death of the patient.
Does it hurt in the area of appendicitis? It is time to consult a doctor, in addition, the disease can be identified by other signs.
An exacerbated condition is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- General malaise.
- Feeling of weakness.
- Decrease in appetite.
- In some cases, vomiting.
- Temperature 37.2-37.8.
- A yellowish or white coating on the tongue.
You can recognize the disease on your own in several simple ways, but you should be extremely careful when checking it!
- Lightly press a fingertip over the ilium - usually where appendicitis hurts. For confidence, compare the sensations when tapping the left and right sides - on the left side there should not be painful sensations. Be careful! Do not carry out intense abdominal palpation, otherwise you can provoke a rupture of the appendix and subsequently the development of peritonitis.
- During a disease with a loud cough, as a rule, pain in the right iliac region intensifies.
- Identify the site of pain and lightly press the palm in this place, do not take your hand away for 7-10 seconds, while the pain will slightly weaken. If at the time of the abduction of the arm it resumes, this may be a symptom of an acute state of appendicitis.
- If you lie on your left side, the abdominal pain decreases, if you turn to the opposite side and straighten your legs, the pain intensifies - this can also be a sign of acute appendicitis.
It is strongly not recommended to engage in intensive self-diagnosis and even more so self-medication. In any case, call an ambulance, because appendicitis hurts in different ways, and it can disguise itself as other ailments: inflammation of the female organs, kidneys, bladder, renal colic, peptic ulcer, and much more.
Other symptoms may appear during appendicitis, they occur less frequently, but if you find them, then it's time to go to the hospital.
- The temperature does not drop to 38 ° C or high - 40 ° C.
- Constipation, accompanied by frequent vomiting, is an occasion to see a specialist as soon as possible.
- Painful false urge to defecate.
As a rule, within a couple of hours, abdominal pain increases, but no matter how much appendicitis hurts, a doctor should be consulted immediately, at least to confirm or refute the presence of inflammatory processes in the body.
Actions that should not be performed before the doctor arrives:
- Try to hold out without painkillers until the doctor comes, as this can complicate the diagnosis.
- Avoid eating food and liquids.
- Eliminate the application of warm objects to the stomach, this can only aggravate the situation. You can use a cold compress to relieve pain.
If severe pain has subsided, this may indicate a transition to a more serious condition, so do not relax, and do not let everything go by its own accord.
What diseases should be distinguished from appendicitis pain?
Differential diagnosis is carried out with diseases of organs located on the right next to the iliac region. In this case, it is not enough to focus only on the nature of the pain, it is necessary to take into account the information of the anamnesis, survey data.
Acute right-sided adnexitis (inflammation of the uterine appendages) causes pain in the groin on the right and lower abdomen. Such localization is possible with a pelvic location of appendicitis.
- a patient with acute appendicitis cannot get sick for several days, after 1-2 days the process goes into peritonitis,
- with adnexitis, women experience pain much longer, go to the doctor after 5-7 days,
- adnexitis - a chronic disease, pain intensifies during periods of exacerbation, associated with a violation of menstrual function for several months, infertility,
- palpation of the abdomen is painless, muscle stiffness is not characteristic, there are no symptoms.
With ovarian apoplexy, interruption of tubal pregnancy, severe pain in the lower abdomen and on the affected side is usually associated with physical stress, an act of defecation. The woman has signs of internal bleeding (dizziness. Fainting, falling blood pressure).
An attack of right-sided renal colic immediately begins with severe pain radiating to the lower back, groin, thigh, and perineum. Patients, unlike appendicitis, are excited. Pay attention to dysuric symptoms, the appearance of blood in the urine, a decrease in pain after the use of antispasmodics, an independent cessation of the attack after the stone has left.
Inflammation of the right kidney (pyelonephritis) is accompanied by dull bursting pains in the lower back, attacks are possible with a calculous type of disease. At the same time, signs of intoxication, temperature, nausea, and vomiting increase. There are no symptoms of peritoneal irritation. The specialist is capable of palpating an enlarged and painful kidney in thin patients.
Intestinal infections are similar to the atypical course of appendicitis in the pelvic and medial position of the appendix. The retreat of pain into the background is characteristic. The main severity is caused by vomiting, fever, severe intoxication, diarrhea, and fluid loss.
Acute infectious diseases caused by salmonella or shigella, are associated with infectious products, contact with patients. They begin with diarrhea, followed by abdominal pain. With appendicitis, pain occurs first.
In the differential diagnosis of appendicitis, one has to reckon with more rare diseases: inflammation of Meckel's diverticulum, Crohn's disease (terminal ileitis). They are clinically detected by examination of the intestine during surgery.
In surgery, the rule of mandatory control of the ileum was adopted over a meter from the ileocecal angle, if the appendix was suspected unchanged or catarrhal if suspected of appendicitis.
A careful assessment of symptoms allows you to choose the right treatment tactics. If necessary, doctors use the advice of a gynecologist, gastroenterologist, infectious disease specialist.To the question “can appendicitis be sick for a week”, we will answer with confidence that with such manifestations, we need to look for another disease. Laboratory and instrumental methods can confirm or exclude suspicion of appendicitis.
Forms and types of appendicitis
Acute and chronic appendicitis are distinguished by the shape of the course of the inflammatory process in the appendix. The acute form develops rapidly with vivid clinical symptoms and has several types:
- catarrhal - characterized by stagnation of blood circulation at the top of the appendix. This is easily diagnosed in the first hours and is indicated instrumentally by effusion of lymph, swelling of the process and an increase in the mucous membrane in volume. If the inflammatory process is diagnosed at this stage, then the patient can do without surgical intervention. After a few hours (maximum day), the catarrhal form progresses to phlegmonous
- Phlegmonous appendicitis is characterized by a pronounced thickening of the walls of the appendix, coating of the mucous membrane in the area of the appendix with purulent contents, and the formation of multiple abscesses.
- Gangrenous form - characterized by the development of destructive changes in the walls of the appendix and the involvement of surrounding tissues and mesenteries in the pathological process.
Blind but dangerous
The appendix is a short and thin blind appendix, 7-10 cm long, located at the end of the cecum (the initial part of the colon). Like any part of the intestine, the appendix produces intestinal juice, but so little that it does not play a special role in digestion. Therefore, it has long been considered a "mistake of nature" and removed to the sick as soon as possible. But recently, scientists found lymphoid cells in the blind process, the same as in the tonsils of the person. And since these cells have the ability to protect the body from infections, the assumption was born that the appendix is part of the immune system.
However, the number of protective cells in it, as it turned out, is very small and can not have a strong effect on the immune system. So most experts are still sure that there is no benefit from the vermiform appendix, but the harm in case of inflammation can be significant: timely diagnosed acute appendicitis can cost not only health, but also life.
Possible complications and consequences
If you do not take the necessary measures for the primary symptoms of inflammation of the appendix of the cecum, life-threatening complications may develop, for example: pylephlebitis, abscess, the formation of ulcers and peritonitis.
Only the surgeon can identify the consequences of the pathology based on the results of the examination. As a rule, when the process becomes inflamed, during the operation it is possible to get rid of all undesirable consequences, but the development of complications during the recovery period should not be ruled out.
Consider the most common postoperative complications:
- The formation of postoperative hernia. It is formed most often due to divergence of seams.
- Peritonitis - is diagnosed, as a rule, in adults who later contacted a medical institution. It is accompanied by fever, weakness, pain in the peritoneum.
In the postoperative period, all necessary rules must be observed. Firstly, it is important to avoid overeating and exclude from the diet spicy, fried and fatty dishes. Physical active loads are contraindicated, otherwise the seams may break.
Due to the high probability of complications, treatment (removal) of appendicitis is performed exclusively by surgical method.
Its implementation is carried out immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis. The operation takes place under general anesthesia, using incisions (laparotomy) or punctures (using endoscopic instruments).
For some species appendicitis possible laparoscopy.In the presence of complications, all layers of the abdominal wall are opened.
The first twelve hours after surgery, the patient is prescribed compliance with bed rest, and abstinence from food, antibiotic therapy is prescribed. Bandages and drains for the outflow of fluid from the peritoneum are systematically changed. The recovery period is from 7 to 14 days, it depends on the stage of the operated disease and the presence of accompanying pathologies. The sooner the surgery occurs, the sooner the patient will be able to return to his usual life.
Men often confuse appendix inflammation with bladder inflammation or kidney problems. Women take the resulting symptoms for inflammation of the appendages.
Appendicitis is a serious danger for people with diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Serious consequences can occur in pregnant women. In order to avoid complications, it is recommended to consult a doctor as soon as possible.
10 symptoms of appendicitis
The characteristic clinical signs of acute appendicitis are:
- pain - is determined by methods of provocation according to Shchetkin-Blumberg, Obraztsov, Sitkovsky, Rovzing,
- bloating and flatulence,
- nausea and vomiting due to reflex agitation of the digestive tract,
- increase in body temperature to 38-39.0 degrees,
- plaque in the language of gray or white - first wet, then dry.
Already during a medical examination of the patient, symptoms such as:
- tachycardia - a pulse of more than 100 beats per minute,
- decrease in blood pressure - indicates intoxication of the body,
- palpation of the anterior abdominal wall on the right and left with both hands at the same time is accompanied by a sharp pain in the right iliac region and tension of the abdomen in this area,
- tapping fingers on the abdomen in different areas is accompanied by increased pain in the right puff.
Depending on the duration of the manifestations of pain, appendicitis is divided into an early stage and a late one. The early stage of the acute inflammatory process lasts no more than 2 days, after which the infection spreads beyond the appendix with the involvement of surrounding tissues in the inflammatory process. In the late stage, perforation of the walls of the appendix often occurs and its purulent contents get into the abdominal cavity, which causes peritonitis.
With a favorable course of acute inflammatory process is observed:
- stabilization of body temperature,
- the disappearance of pain
- restoration of appetite and general health.
For a few more days, the patient may remain painful with deep palpation of the right puff, so for some time it is better to leave the patient under the supervision of surgeons to make a final decision on the need for surgery. A great danger of a favorable outcome is the transition of an acute form of inflammation to a chronic one.
Are the teeth to blame?
Experts do not agree on the exact causes of appendicitis. However, risk groups are identified.
For example, people suffering from diseases such as chronic tonsillitis, pneumonia, lingering colds, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, caries. As a result of these diseases, infections in the bloodstream penetrate the appendix and provoke an inflammatory process there. So that healthy teeth are the key to health for appendicitis.
There is also a stress theory. It is based on the fact that as a result of excitement in a person, a sharp narrowing of the blood vessels occurs and this leads to a sudden bleeding of the appendix and the development of its inflammation.
But most often, the occurrence of appendicitis is explained by clogging of the joints of the colon and the appendix, which often happens with constipation and chronic colitis.
Complications of acute appendicitis can be associated with pathologies on the background of an undeveloped appendix and unsuccessful surgery.
They are divided into early and late. Early complications occur during surgery or in the first 2-3 days after it. Late occur approximately 4-5 days, sometimes on day 7. Common early complications include:
- bleeding - develop due to unsuccessful ligation of blood vessels or bleeding of a small vein,
- intestinal paresis - develops as a result of improper application of the intestinal suture and a sharp decrease in peristalsis due to adhesions. Clinically, paresis is manifested by vomiting a couple of hours after eating and the absence of bowel movement,
- acute ischuria (urinary retention) - develops against the background of swelling of the tissues of the abdominal cavity and reflex spasm of the sphincter of the bladder.
Late postoperative complications of appendicitis include:
- inflammation of the peritoneal tissues - peritonitis, due to infection of the postoperative wound and infection into the abdominal cavity. Clinically manifested by severe pain and tension of the anterior abdominal wall, vomiting of undigested food or bile, increasing weakness and tachycardia,
- wetting of sutures of a postoperative wound - such a complication is possible with individual intolerance to suture material or insufficiently careful treatment of the suture site. Clinically, the complication is accompanied by fever, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.
Complications associated with not removing the inflamed appendix most often develop in people who are in no hurry to seek medical help or are self-medicating. Complications can also be due to improper diagnosis of appendicitis, since the inflammatory process of the appendix has similar symptoms with other pathologies of the abdominal organs.
The opinion of doctors
Doctors systematically remind that at the slightest suspicion of pathology, the patient should call an ambulance or go alone to the hospital. The danger of pathology is accompanied not only by complications, but also by fatal outcome.
Appendicitis is a disease in which the appendix is inflamed (the appendix of the cecum has such a name) ....
An appendicitis patient is strongly not recommended:
- Take medications for the digestive system. Medications can cause an undesirable chemical reaction, which will lead to rupture of the appendix.
- To apply a warm heating pad to a painful place, this increases the likelihood of a rupture of the appendix, and also contributes to the spread of infection throughout the body.
- Put enemas, use laxatives or analgesic drugs. During the examination, doctors are not able to correctly make / confirm the diagnosis.
- In order to avoid irritation of the digestive system, the patient should not allow overeating. It is contraindicated to use products that irritate the mucous membranes. Surgery to remove the appendix is done on an empty stomach.
There are many simple and affordable methods to prevent appendicitis. Since appendicitis is a component of the digestive system, the main prevention of this disease is the establishment of a proper diet.
To avoid inflammation of the appendix, in the diet of each person must be present cellulose.
Thanks to its fibers, it serves as a cleaner for the intestinal walls, and therefore, a guarantee that the appendix will remain unpolluted.
Your food should contain all kinds of fruits and fresh vegetables, mushrooms, legumes and herbs.Also, do not neglect fermented milk products, which, thanks to their beneficial bacteria, will quickly help strengthen immunity. But seeds and berries with seeds are undesirable components of your diet.
In addition, you need to minimize the presence of constipation - one of the main causes of intoxication. To do this, twenty minutes before eating, you should drink a glass of warm water. To this you need to add an active lifestyle that will contribute to the proper functioning of internal organs.
For the prevention of appendicitis, it will not be superfluous to change your drinking regimen. It is worth consuming more clean water, herbal decoctions and infusions. Water perfectly rejuvenates the body and is an excellent way to cleanse the intestines.
In childhood, the symptoms of appendicitis are different from the manifestations of the inflammatory process in adults. This is due to the fact that in the child’s body the lymphoid tissue of the appendix is poorly developed.
In young children, the area of localization of the appendix is retrocircular (behind the rectum) or subhepatic. This is also the reason for the difference in symptoms from the manifestations of the disease in an adult.
In which side does appendicitis hurt in a child? Also on the right side of the lower abdomen. A number of characteristics characteristic of a child's body are added to this sign:
- increase in low-grade temperature indicators,
- violation of urination and vomiting,
- bloating, diarrhea or constipation,
- tachycardia (increased heart rate),
- Signs of severe anxiety (sleep disturbance, refusal to eat, crying).
In childhood, the development of the inflammatory process in the area of the appendix is rapid. First, pain occurs in the epigastric region. Discomfort gradually descends to a characteristic location.
If the appendix is in the atypical region, then the pain will be localized in the liver, in the lower abdomen above the pubis or in the lumbar region, radiating to the groin. In some cases, discomfort can be felt in the back, crotch, or groin. In this case, difficulties may arise during the diagnosis process, only an experienced doctor should recognize the disease.
The patient is laid on his back and offered to raise his right leg without bending upward. In the place where appendicitis, the pain becomes stronger.
The doctor pulls on the patient’s shirt, holding the lower edge with his hand. After this, the patient is invited to take a breath. At the same time, the doctor uses his fingertips to make quick superficial movements from the upper abdomen down and to the right. The slip of the hand is ensured by a stretched shirt. At the moment when the movements stop, the pain becomes more intense.
Knowing how to determine appendicitis, you should not self-medicate. You still can’t do without surgical intervention. And the sooner the inflamed organ is removed, the less likely it is to develop complications.
Basically, the prognosis for treating appendicitis is favorable. With timely treatment of the patient for medical help, complications after surgery are unlikely.
In the treatment of pathology at a later date, the inflammation of the appendix can go to other internal organs or cause peritonitis. In this case, the body is exposed to mortal danger, and the nature of the forecasts depends on the state of the body and the skill of the surgeons. Therefore, it is extremely important to undergo an examination in a timely manner and receive qualified medical care.
How to treat
If the diagnosis is acute appendicitis, the first treatment is one - emergency surgery. Currently, there is a gentle laparoscopic method in which the appendix can be removed without a large incision. Unfortunately, in our country, this type of operation due to the poor technical equipment of hospitals is not yet widespread.
The main task of the postoperative period is to avoid complications, for example, suppuration of the postoperative wound. In their occurrence, most often there is no guilt of the surgeon. And to be this complication or not to be, depends on the state of the appendix at the time of surgery - the greater the degree of inflammation, the greater the risk of suppuration.
If the operation was successful, young patients already on the 6-7th day are removed the stitches and discharged from the hospital. But for elderly people, as well as with chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, cardiac ischemia, etc.), sutures are removed 2-3 days later. After this, it is advisable to fasten the wound with adhesive tape.
About a month, do not take a bath and do not go to the bath: water and temperature loads on the fragile scar tissue make the seam coarser, wider and uglier. At least three months, and the elderly can not lift weights for six months. Avoid sports that cause abdominal muscle tension. Try not to catch a cold: it is dangerous for you to cough.
If you try to "endure" appendicitis, peritonitis may occur - inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Its symptoms are:
growing pain throughout the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, in severe cases - drowsiness, lethargy, bluish complexion,
pulse up to 120-140 beats per minute, temperature up to 39-40 C,
the tongue is covered with a white coating, then it becomes dry, like a crust, the lips dry and crack,
the stomach swells, hurts in all its areas, but especially on the right.
Peritonitis is treated only by surgery. Moreover, the operation is very complex and lengthy. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to save the patient. That is why with the appearance of any abdominal pain, in no case should you delay a visit to the doctor. As they say, we do not want to scare anyone, but everyone should remember how dangerous appendicitis is.
How does appendicitis manifest in children
With inflammation of the appendix, the child becomes lethargic, eats poorly, is naughty, refuses to play. He lays on a barrel, presses his legs against his stomach and does not allow an examination of the "sore spot". Which side the child’s appendicitis hurts is determined by the location of the appendix.
It is very important to know how to determine appendicitis in a child, so as not to start the process and prevent the development of peritonitis. After all, young children often can not understand what is happening to them wrong. Therefore, they cannot explain their condition to parents. Adults should carefully consider all the symptoms of appendicitis and on which side the pain appears in order to seek qualified medical help in a timely manner.
If appendicitis is suspected on which side it hurts, all parents should know to be ready. The pain in the inflammatory process is localized in the right side of the abdomen. In toddlers, sick children experience a decrease in appetite, a rejection of even their favorite foods, and restless sleep.
The whole cause may be appendicular colic - acute cramps in the abdomen, caused by contractions or spasms of the appendix. The pain can last quite a long time, alternately disappearing, then reappearing. It is quite difficult to diagnose appendicular colic, so they can cause the development of acute appendicitis.
It is accompanied by nausea and vomiting, as well as discomfort in the iliac region. The difference is that with appendicitis there is a reflex tension of muscle structures in the peritoneum.
With inflammation, pain in the epigastric region is present only at the beginning (Kocher symptom).
Symptoms of acute gastritis occur, as a rule, in response to a violation of diet.
Gastrointestinal infections (caused by staphylococcus)
Develop mainly when eating poor-quality food. Accompanied by exacerbation of enteritis or gastritis.Patients develop vomiting, pain in the pancreas or other parts of the abdomen. Distinctive features - the defeat of all family members at the same time. With appendicitis, there is no repeated painful vomiting, and there are signs of peritoneal irritation.
Gastric and duodenal ulcer
With a preperforative state, symptoms appear that are similar to appendicitis. Persistent pain occurs in the upper region of the peritoneum, after which nausea appears, accompanied by vomiting.
The upper abdomen becomes painful and irritation of the peritoneum is possible. The pain syndrome is aching in both cases, which complicates the diagnosis.
Distinctive features - with an ulcer, pains are localized in the upper abdomen, with appendicitis - in the iliac region.
Symptoms of the disease
With established acute appendicitis, treatment is carried out by emergency surgery. Modern medicine allows surgical intervention in a more gentle way - a laparoscopic operation, during which the inflamed process is removed, bypassing a large incision in the external tissues. No less important in the treatment is the postoperative period, if all the recommendations of the doctor are followed, it will be possible to avoid subsequent complications.
If the outcome is successful, after about a week, the stitches are removed and they are discharged from the hospital, more often it concerns young people. Elderly people, diabetics, hypertensive patients and patients with other chronic diseases have their stitches removed a few days later, depending on the condition of the patient.
The diagnosis of acute appendicitis suggests that surgical treatment is necessary.
Preparation for surgery is carried out quickly, within an hour. The favorable outcome of the operation depends on this.
Therefore, attention is repeatedly drawn to the fact that with abdominal pain it is necessary to immediately seek medical help.
Two methods of the operation were developed:
- dissection of the tissues of the abdominal wall, when the doctors open an overview of the state of the intestine and its process, an appendix is excised
- laparoscopy, the intestinal process is removed by a laparoscope, which is inserted through punctures made by endoscopic equipment. In this case, the integrity of the abdominal wall remains intact, and after the operation, two neat points remain.
The operation by both methods is performed under general anesthesia, local anesthesia is very rarely used.
Laparoscope surgery is performed only with simple appendicitis. When the doctor is sure that there will be no complications.
The operation is carried out almost blindly, the doctor sees his actions on the screen of the endoscope, and carries out all necessary actions with precise movements.
Appendectomy is not a complicated operation; it is easily performed by any surgeon. However, doctors are not tired of repeating: it is important to go to the hospital on time.
Symptoms of many diseases are similar to the development of appendicitis, and all of them appear at the same time at first. But there are several diagnostic techniques developed on the basis of long-term practical observations of appendicitis patients. They are named after the doctors who first described them.
It is important at the initial stage of development of acute symptoms to determine where the pain was localized. To do this, be sure to check a number of symptoms:
- To determine the pain around the navel, the Shchetkin-Blumberg symptom is used. It is always present in inflammatory processes occurring in the abdominal cavity. This diagnostic method almost always helps to identify inflammation of the blind process. Check for this symptom as follows. The patient is placed on a flat surface on his back. The pillow is removed from under the head. Legs are asked to bend at the knees. Three fingers (index, middle and ring) are pressed in the navel, then the hand is very quickly removed.The pain that appeared at this moment clearly indicates inflammation of the cecum.
- In order to confirm the diagnosis, they check the symptom of Voskresensky, which is a sign of acute appendicitis. For this, the patient can stand or lie. If someone close holds a hand over his clothes on his right side, starting to move from the edge of the rib, then a person suffering from appendicitis will feel pain.
- Sitkovsky's symptom will help to recognize the disease. It manifests itself when the patient lies on his left side. With the development of appendicitis, patients in this position feel severe pain on the right.
- The symptom of Bartomier-Michelson is a continuation of the diagnosis. It is carried out immediately after Sitkovsky syndrome, when the patient lies on his left side. If in this position to feel the stomach on the right, in the region of the cecum, then the pain will begin to intensify, which indicates appendicitis, the symptoms of Dumbadze and Obraztsova will help to continue the diagnosis.
- Dumbadze noted that pain in the navel is always a symptom of appendicitis, located on the right and below the navel line.
- Symptom Obraztsova helps to recognize the course of chronic appendicitis: raising the right leg will cause increased pain in the appendix.
- In the acute form of inflammation of the appendix, the posture of a lying person can directly indicate a dangerous disease. Since appendicitis is on the right, the patient lays on this side, pulling his knees under his stomach. Such a pose eases his suffering. If the patient tries to straighten his legs, then a sharp pain will prevent him from doing this.
- If the pain is mild, and there is suspicion of a simple poisoning with poor-quality products, to understand where appendicitis hurts, one more study is needed. It will confirm the assumption or refute it. For diagnosis, they will ask you to lie down on the patient’s back, bend your knees, and then pull them to your stomach. In this position, the pain with appendicitis subsides. After taking the right posture, a person suffering from colic in the abdomen should straighten his legs sharply. If this caused acute pain, then seek immediate medical attention.
Both diseases have a sudden onset - pain appears. Body temperature rises, signs of peritoneal irritation occur. Differential diagnosis is based on the difference in the nature of the pain syndrome. With cholecystitis, discomfort is localized in the right hypochondrium and gives to the right shoulder or shoulder blade. With appendicitis, the pain is concentrated only in the lower abdomen on the right.
It has a confused clinical picture, so specialists often make mistakes in recognition. The signs are similar to various diseases of the internal organs, which are located in the peritoneum.
It begins with sudden pain in the abdomen and may be accompanied by persistent vomiting. The blood picture in this case is also variable.
As a rule, the stomach is painful in the upper part, and with appendicitis below.
About a month after the operation, it is not allowed to take baths or go to the bath - temperature loads interfere with wound healing - negatively affect the suture, it takes on a wide and rough outline. In the postoperative period, to avoid complications and faster recovery, you should rest more.
People suffering from some ailments may not pay much attention to the symptoms of the disease, since appendicitis manifests itself in the very place where it constantly hurts. Therefore, a masked disease is much more dangerous for those people who have:
- Oncological diseases or a course of chemotherapy.
- There was an organ transplant.
- Pregnancy, especially in the 3rd trimester.
Appendicitis is also dangerous for young children and the elderly.
Diagnostic and treatment methods
With the appearance of pain in the abdomen, a person can try to make sure the presence of appendicitis. To do this, use one of the following methods.
- Symptom Obraztsova - the patient lies down horizontally and straightens his legs. Next, you need to raise the unbent right leg up. With appendicitis, the pain syndrome will increase at the moment. In advanced cases, the patient will not be able to perform this action.
- Sample Rowzing - when palpating the abdomen, you need to click on the area on which side the appendix is located. Movements must be jerky. When pressed, the patient does not experience discomfort. The pain appears when you release your hand.
- Sitkovsky test - the patient lies on the right side, and then on the left. On the right side, the pain subsides or completely stops. When turning to the left side, the discomfort increases and focuses in the localization area of the appendix.
Appendicitis is only treated surgically. The sooner therapeutic measures are taken, the less likely the development of complications.
Everyone should know where the appendix is located, and what signs accompany its inflammation. This pathology can cause life-threatening complications. It is strongly recommended that you do not hesitate to contact a specialist. Timely surgery to remove the appendix significantly reduces the likelihood of undesirable consequences.
Appendicitis can be sick once in a lifetime, but despite this, you can’t be negligent in the disease. Many leading experts are of the opinion that it is possible to prevent inflammation of the appendix, observing preventive measures.
Blood tests, ultrasound, x-rays of the abdominal cavity help confirm the diagnosis. If there is a CT in the institution, a computer study is carried out.
Many diagnostic methods are required to accurately establish the form of the disease, as sometimes the symptoms of appendicitis are erased by the duration of the disease or the presence of complications in the peritoneum.
What is appendicitis is reliably known to doctors. They know how insidious this disease is.
Mistakenly diagnosed, especially with a late visit to the doctor, the development of complications is possible:
- perforation of the appendix, when infectious agents penetrate the abdominal cavity, causing peritonitis,
- intestinal obstruction, developing due to inflammation, from which the functionality of the intestinal muscles is impaired,
- sepsis, if the infection enters the bloodstream, this is a dangerous condition that poses a serious threat to human life.
How to check appendicitis, determining by signs and symptoms in women, at home, even before the arrival of an ambulance?
To do this, you need to know the anatomical location of the intestinal process in men and women. The typical location is on the right side, just below the navel. However, there is an atypical location.
Therefore, it is important to conduct an ultrasound or CT scan so as not to confuse which symptoms are with appendicitis and which are with gastrointestinal diseases.
The localization of the appendix depends on its length and the state of the mesentery, which it attaches to the walls of the intestines.
The appendix is not anatomically large, but its mechanical blockage leads to inflammation of the entire intestine in terms of attachment of the appendix.
Therefore, differential diagnosis is needed - to eliminate chronic constipation, vascular disease that feeds the appendix and lower intestines, infection.
It is worth noting that it is strictly forbidden to give a sick person a pain medication.
Analgesics erase pain, and a person simply does not feel the moment the appendix breaks, and this usually causes a fatal outcome.
Everyone should know which side the appendicitis hurts in order to recognize the primary symptoms in time and take action.This disease can cause severe consequences. In no case should you hesitate to consult a doctor. A timely surgical operation reduces the risk of complications.
Appendicitis is sick only once in a lifetime, but, despite this, you should not neglect this condition. According to experts, the development of the inflammatory process can be avoided by observing preventive measures.
How to distinguish appendicitis from other diseases?
Diagnosis of appendicitis includes a set of instrumental, physical and laboratory studies, namely:
- careful history taking - the doctor finds out the nature and duration of pain, aggravation when turning to one side or changing the position of the body, the presence of concomitant signs (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting),
- palpation of the anterior abdominal wall, percussion (tapping), measurement of body temperature and blood pressure indicators,
- laboratory tests - analysis of urine, blood,
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs and abdominal cavity,
- abdominal x-ray,
- conducting diagnostic tests, the results of which are key in differentiating appendicitis from other diseases.
The most commonly used diagnostic tests in modern surgery are:
- by the method of Obraztsov - the patient is lying down, while the right leg needs to be lifted upright. With appendicitis, the pain in the sigh will increase due to muscle tension.
- According to Bartomier-Michelson - the patient lies on his left side, and palpation of the right podzheg is accompanied by sharp pain.
- According to Shchetkin-Blyumberg - with the fingers of two hands, the doctor strongly presses on the area of the right podzheha and sharply lets go of his hands. With appendicitis, the patient will feel a sharp pain after releasing his fingers.
Emergency care for acute appendicitis
When symptoms of acute appendicitis appear, it is urgent to call an ambulance, put the patient on his back, soothe him, and to reduce pain, it is allowed to apply a heating pad with ice water wrapped in several layers of tissue to the right puff. It is strictly forbidden before the ambulance arrives:
- relieve pain with analgesics,
- apply a hot heating pad or compress to your stomach
- take antispasmodics or laxatives,
- inject any fluid into the rectum with an enema.
Even if the abdominal pain has decreased or gone over time, you should still see a doctor what to exclude or confirm appendicitis - complications most often develop against the background of an untimely diagnosis.