Chest pain (thoracalgia) is an unpleasant sensation that occurs during pathological processes in internal organs, injuries of the chest or spine. This condition leads to shortness of breath, stiffness of movements and a significant deterioration in the quality of human life. To eliminate the manifestation, you should contact a medical institution.
Pain in the chest in the middle, on the right or left side is provoked by pathological changes in the cardiovascular system or upper respiratory tract. Also, the pathology that is associated with the spine is not an exception. In general, chest pain can be caused by the following etiological factors:
- post-traumatic syndrome
- neurological ailments
- coronary heart disease,
- cardiovascular pathology,
- aortic dissection
- injuries to the back, sternum and spine,
- respiratory diseases
- pathology of the abdominal organs,
The nature of chest pain may indicate a possible root cause. Pressing pain in the chest may indicate a pre-infarction state, so an ambulance should be called urgently.
Pain in the chest can be supplemented by the following additional signs of a clinical picture:
Depending on the etiology, the overall clinical picture can be supplemented with specific signs, which helps to differentiate them:
- sharp, severe pain in the middle or in the left half of the chest, radiating to the arm or neck, may be a sign of acute ischemia or myocardial infarction,
- chest pain on the right or left side, which occurs during physical exertion and completely disappears at rest, may indicate angina pectoris,
- sharp pain in the left side of the chest, with a return to the back, may be a symptom of aortic dissection,
- pain in the chest when coughing or when taking a deep breath can indicate the development of an upper respiratory tract disease.
Also, pain in the chest during inspiration can be a sign of pneumonia and inflammation of the pleura. In this case, the overall clinical picture may be supplemented by the following manifestations:
Osteochondrosis may be the cause of chest pain in the middle. In this case, the clinical picture may have the following symptoms:
- when you try to take a deep breath or exhale, the pain intensifies sharply and has a stitching character,
- there is discomfort in the area of the right or left hypochondrium,
- pain radiates to the region of the stomach, liver, in some cases in the heart,
- pain attacks occur periodically or only with physical activity,
- pallor of the skin,
- violation of the sensitivity of the skin,
- decreased muscle tone of the chest.
In the presence of such a clinical picture, you should urgently seek medical help. Otherwise, serious complications and even death can develop if the heart attack is the cause of the pain.
Why does the chest hurt, only a doctor can tell, after conducting an examination and making an accurate diagnosis. If the condition of the patient allows, the attending doctor conducts a detailed physical examination with a clarification of the general history. Be sure to take into account the medical history. For an accurate diagnosis, the following laboratory diagnostic measures are used:
- general and biochemical blood test,
- sputum analysis (if a severe cough is observed),
- pulse oximetry
- chest x-ray,
- blood for markers of myocardial infarction,
- diagnostic medication
If osteochondrosis is suspected as the root cause of chest pain on the right or left, the general diagnostic program may include such additional examination methods:
- computed tomography of the cervical and thoracic,
- contrast discography
- myelography - a study of the spinal cord with a contrast agent.
Additional research methods may be prescribed at the discretion of the doctor, depending on the current clinical picture, medical history and medical history. Treatment can only be prescribed after an accurate diagnosis.
Treatment directly depends on the etiology of the pathological process that provoked the development of such a symptom. Sometimes, the addition of such symptoms requires urgent hospitalization of the patient.
In general, drug therapy for chest pain on the right or left can consist of taking drugs of this type:
However, drug treatment completely comes from the etiological factor that provoked pain in the chest area.
As an adjunct therapy, to eliminate pain in the left side of the chest or with a different symptom, the doctor prescribes the following physiotherapeutic procedures:
- shock wave therapy
- mud therapy.
Depending on the etiology of pain, manual therapy may be prescribed.
In any case, therapy should be prescribed only by a competent medical specialist. Pain on the left side of the chest, on the right or in the middle, can indicate the development of a serious pathological process, so self-medication is fraught with serious consequences.
There are no specific preventive methods in this case. This is due to the fact that pain in the chest area is a symptom, and not a separate nosological unit. You should adhere to a general healthy lifestyle and nutrition, do exercises or go to sports sections, do not get too cold, seek medical help in a timely manner, do not neglect the preventive examination of medical specialists, and also do fluorography on an annual basis.
To understand what exactly causes pain in the chest, localized in the middle, you should know that between the lungs, in the mediastinum the most important organs of our body are concentrated:
- heart and main vessels (aorta, vena cava),
- bronchi, trachea,
- The lymph nodes,
- muscles, ligaments, nerves.
Nearby is the diaphragm, abdominal organs, chest wall, thymus gland - they can also cause discomfort, this pain is called reflected.
Despite the large number of important anatomical formations, all pains that occur in the chest directly behind the sternum are somehow connected with one organ - the heart.
Irradiation of pain in the left shoulder, arms, neck, and jaw can be manifestations of pathological changes in other organs and tissues, but pain discomfort of any nature, intensity that occurs in the center of the sternum reliably indicates the interest of the heart.
Determine the cause of sternal pain in the middle according to the symptoms
The table is compiled by a practicing general practitioner of the AskiDrach website Victoria Druzhikina and serves as the most reliable source of information in determining the cause of pain.
|Disease||Symptom||Prescribed drugs in treatment|
|Ischemic heart disease||The pain is dull, aching, sharp, stitching. Often gives to the arm, shoulder, under the shoulder blade. Shortness of breath, swelling of the legs.||Nitrates ("Nitroglycerin"), |
Prolonged nitrates (Pectrol).
|Myocardial infarction||Severe pain, pallor, cold sweat, loss of consciousness, arrhythmia, decrease in pressure are possible.||Narcotic analgesics ("Morphine"), |
Prolonged Nitrates (Pectrol)
|Endocarditis ||Shortness of breath, non-intense, less severe pain, arrhythmia, swelling of the legs.||Nitrates ("Nitroglycerin"), |
Prolonged nitrates (Pectrol).
|Bronchitis, pneumonia||The pain appears after 2-3 days of coughing. It arises or intensifies during cough tremors, quite strong. Fever, sputum, weakness, sweating. There may be shortness of breath.||NSAIDs (Diclofenac, Ketorol), |
Bronchodilators (Eufillin, Theophylline).
|Bronchial asthma||Attacks of lack of oxygen, choking. Pain is rare, associated with coughing attacks.||Inhalation therapy |
Bronchodilators (Eufillin, Theophylline).
|Pleurisy||Severe pain, worse on inspiration, high body temperature, shortness of breath, weakness, cough, sweating.||NSAIDs (Diclofenac, Ketorol), |
Bronchodilators (Eufillin, Theophylline),
|Respiratory Cancer||The pains are aching, dull, in the final stage intensify, cough, often with blood.||Surgical treatment, chemotherapy, radiation|
|Gastritis, reflux||Pain of varying degrees of intensity, aggravated with food intake, also occurs on an empty stomach. Nausea, heartburn, belching.||Antispasmodics (No-shpa, Papaverin), |
Antacids ("Almagel", "Phosphalugel"),
Proton pump inhibitors (Pantoprazole, Omeprazole, Rabeprazole).
|Stomach ulcer||Acute, severe pain, nausea, cold sweat, severe weakness, may be fainting. ||Narcotic analgesics ("Morphine"), |
Antispasmodics (No-shpa, Papaverin),
Antacids ("Almagel", "Phosphalugel"),
Proton pump inhibitors (Pantoprazole, Omeprazole, Rabeprazole).
|Osteochondrosis||Pain comes from the spine, aggravated by movement, inhalation, cough. At rest, subside or decrease.||NSAIDs (Meloxicam, Xefocam, Diclofenac, Aertal), |
Muscle relaxants (Sirdalud, Midokalm),
Chondroprotectors ("Teraflex", "Don", "Arthra"),
Vitamins of group B ("Neurobion", "Combilipen", "Milgamma").
|Intercostal neuralgia||The pain is intense, sometimes shooting, associated with movement, inspiration.|| |
NSAIDs “(Meloxicam”, “Xefocam”, “Diclofenac”, “Aertal”).
By the nature of the pain
|Nature of sensations||Possible pathology|
|dumb||IHD, endocarditis, cancer, gastritis, bronchial asthma|
|sharp and strong||Heart attack, stomach ulcer, pleurisy|
|crushing||Ischemic heart disease, endocarditis|
|stitching||IHD, intercostal neuralgia, osteochondrosis, pneumonia, bronchitis|
|aching ||Gastritis, ischemic heart disease|
|strong||Intercostal neuralgia, osteochondrosis|
Causes of Chest Pain
- Heartburn. Acidic gastric juice that enters the esophagus from the stomach (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) can cause heartburn, a painful burning sensation in the chest. Often it is combined with a sour taste and burping. Pain in the chest with heartburn is usually associated with eating and can last for hours. This symptom most often occurs when bending or lying down. Facilitates heartburn with antacids.
- Panic attacks. If you experience bouts of causeless fear, combined with chest pain, palpitations, hyperventilation (rapid breathing) and excessive sweating, you may suffer from “panic attacks” - a peculiar form of dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.
- Pleurisy. Acute, limited chest pain, worse when inhaling or coughing, can be a sign of pleurisy. Pain arises from inflammation of the membrane lining the chest cavity from the inside and covering the lungs. Pleurisy can occur with various diseases, but most often with pneumonia.
- Titz syndrome. Under certain conditions, the cartilage of the ribs, especially the cartilage attached to the sternum, can become inflamed. Pain with this disease can occur suddenly and be quite intense, simulating an attack of angina pectoris.However, the localization of pain can be different. With Titz syndrome, pain can increase when you press the sternum or ribs near the sternum. Pain with angina pectoris and myocardial infarction does not depend on this.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical and thoracic spine leads to the so-called vertebrogenic cardialgia, which resembles angina pectoris. In this condition, intense and prolonged pain behind the sternum is observed in the left half of the chest. Irradiation to the hands, interscapular region may be noted. The pain intensifies or weakens with a change in body position, head turns, arm movements. The diagnosis can be confirmed by MRI of the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine will allow you to determine the cause of pain in the chest, if it is caused by pinching of the nerve roots or the presence of hernias of the intervertebral discs.
- Pulmonary embolism. This type of embolism develops when a blood clot enters the pulmonary artery, blocking the flow of blood to the heart. Symptoms of this life-threatening condition may include sudden, sharp chest pain that occurs or worsens with deep breathing or coughing. Other symptoms are shortness of breath, palpitations, anxiety, loss of consciousness.
- Other lung diseases. Pneumothorax (a collapsed lung), high pressure in the vessels supplying the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), and severe bronchial asthma can also be manifested by pain in the chest.
- Muscle diseases. The pain caused by muscle diseases, as a rule, begins to bother when turning the body or when raising arms. Chronic pain syndrome, such as fibromyalgia. May cause persistent chest pain.
- Damage to the ribs and pinching of the nerves. Bruises and fractures of the ribs, as well as pinching of the nerve roots, can cause pain, sometimes very severe. With intercostal neuralgia, the pain is localized along the intercostal spaces and increases with palpation.
- Diseases of the esophagus. Some diseases of the esophagus can cause swallowing disorders and, therefore, chest discomfort. Esophageal spasm can cause chest pain. In patients with this disease, the muscles that normally promote food through the esophagus work uncoordinated. Because esophageal spasm can occur after taking nitroglycerin - just like angina pectoris - diagnostic errors often occur. Another swallowing disorder known as achalasia can also cause chest pain. In this case, the valve in the lower third of the esophagus does not open as it should and does not allow food to enter the stomach. It stays in the esophagus, causing discomfort, pain and heartburn.
- Shingles. This infection, caused by the herpes virus and affecting the nerve endings, can be the cause of severe pain in the chest. The pain can be localized in the left half of the chest or may be shingles. This disease can leave behind a complication - postherpetic neuralgia - the cause of prolonged pain and increased skin sensitivity.
- Diseases of the gallbladder and pancreas. Stones in the gallbladder or inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) and pancreas (pancreatitis) can cause pain in the upper abdomen, radiating to the heart.
- Myocardial infarction - a blood clot that blocks the movement of blood in the arteries of the heart can be the cause of pressing, compressing pain in the chest, lasting more than a few minutes. The pain can give (irradiate) to the back, neck, lower jaw, shoulders and arms (especially the left). Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, cold sweat, and nausea.
- Angina pectoris. Over the years, fatty plaques may form in the arteries of your heart, restricting the flow of blood to the heart muscle, especially during exercise.It is the restriction of blood flow in the arteries of the heart that causes bouts of chest pain - angina pectoris. Angina pectoris is often described by people as a feeling of compression or contraction in the chest. It usually occurs during exercise or stress. The pain usually lasts about a minute and stops at rest.
- Other causes that may cause chest pain include inflammation of the heart shirt (pericarditis), most often due to a viral infection. Pain with pericarditis is most often acute, stitching. Fever and malaise may also occur. Less commonly, aortic dissection, the main artery of your body, may be the cause of pain. The inner layer of this artery can separate under the pressure of the blood and the result is sharp, sudden and severe pain in the chest. Aortic dissection may be the result of a chest injury or a complication of uncontrolled hypertension.
Since chest pain can be the result of many different causes, do not self-diagnose and self-medicate and do not ignore severe and prolonged pain. The cause of your pain may not be so serious - but in order to establish it, you must consult a specialist.
What does chest pain mean
This condition is called thoracalgia in medical practice. The term was created on the basis of the Latin word "thorax", which is translated into Russian as the chest, like the upper part of the skeleton of the body, or the thoracic spine. Doctors hear complaints about pain in this area not only from the elderly, but also from people in their prime. This is the second reason for seeking medical help after abdominal pain. The first thing that comes to mind when a person has obvious chest pain is a dysfunction of the cardiovascular system.
But in reality there are many reasons why the chest can hurt. There may be several that are simultaneously intertwined. Any kind of chest pain is negatively reflected in the quality of life, regardless of the cause of its occurrence. Some of them are short-term pain, they are not dangerous, they are not cause for concern. Some species may signal the development of conditions that threaten the health and life of the patient. So, severe and sharp pain in the chest, resembling an attack, requires emergency medical attention.
To differentiate dangerous pain that cannot be delayed from the physiological norm, you should answer yourself a number of questions:
- in what exact place (or in what area) pain or discomfort in the chest area is felt, what type of pain, its spread, how long the chest hurt, which serves as a provoking factor, what symptoms accompany the painful condition.
Causes of retrosternal discomfort
Any sensation of pain is always a reaction of nerve endings to squeezing them. The reason for this situation may be:
- cough with laryngotracheitis or pneumonia,
- soreness with a sigh indicates bronchitis, pericarditis, possible injury to the ribs, stomach ulcer,
- discomfort in the chest during movement is accompanied by a heart attack or intercostal neuralgia,
- severe discomfort behind the sternum is characteristic of cardiac neurosis, stratified aorta,
- pain with pressure in the sternum can indicate an injury or muscle strain,
- aching retrosternal discomfort is a sign of atrial fibrillation or oncology.
A variety of manifestations makes you focus on the nature of pain, for different diseases it is your own.
Pain in the sternum is a common symptom that can occur in any person. It is an unpleasant pain in the area of attachment of the ribs to the chest.Most often, pain in this part of the body occurs during movements - when walking, breathing, turning and bending, coughing, etc. More rarely, at rest.
Most patients are sure that sternum pain is a sign of heart disease. Official statistics show that only in 40-50% of cases, heart ailments are responsible for pain in the sternum.
In 90% of cases, pain occurs due to problems with organs that are located directly in the chest. Only in 10% of cases are they an echo of disturbances in the functioning of organs located in the abdominal cavity.
A similar ailment can cause:
- diseases of the cardiovascular system,
- lung pathology
- diseases of the bone and cartilage structures,
- diseases of the digestive tract or diaphragm,
- psychogenic factors.
Causes of dull sternal pain
Pain in the chest zone can be formed not only because of problems in the functioning of the heart, but also disorders observed in the lungs, the development of diseases affecting the spine, or the abdominal region.
In some situations, people experience chest pain with osteochondrosis, as well as with:
- in the presence of injuries
- angina pectoris or a developing ulcer that appears in the stomach,
- with myocardial infarction,
- with a variety of injuries, and for other reasons.
That is why, in order to determine which particular problem has befallen, and what measures should be taken, initially investigates to understand which area of the chest suffers most. That is, it is necessary to identify the localization of unpleasant sensations, as well as the nature of their manifestation.
Existing "culprits" of the occurrence of uncomfortable sensations are conditionally divided into several categories:
- diseases affecting the vascular as well as the cardiac system,
- pathologies that cause disorders in the bronchopulmonary department,
- diseases of the LCD tract,
- neurological diseases
In this regard, if there are pains in the chest in the middle or they are based closer to some edge, this may indicate the presence of a wide variety of disorders, which we will consider in our material.
The cardiovascular system
Angina pectoris - a symptom that accompanies various diseases of the cardiovascular system, characterized by severe pressing and burning pain in the region of the heart, which is caused by a violation of the coronary circulation of the heart (atherosclerosis, IHD). Often accompanied by shortness of breath, tachycardia, dizziness, especially during physical exertion, emotional stress, overeating or inhaling cold air in the mouth. It can radiate (give) to the elbows, the region of the shoulder girdle or neck, lower jaw. The duration of the attack is up to 10-15 minutes. It takes place when the pathogenic factor is eliminated and the drug "Nitroglycerin" is taken under the tongue.
Myocardial infarction - An acute condition caused by the cessation of blood supply to one of the sections of the heart muscle, which begins to die in 15-20 minutes (necrosis process). It is characterized by severe pressing and burning pain in the region of the heart even at rest, which can give parts of the body close to the heart, as well as shortness of breath, severe weakness, excessive sweating, blanching of the skin, arrhythmia, headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms are reduced by taking the drug Nitroglycerin under the tongue.
Aortic dissection - a pathological process characterized by stretching of the walls of the aorta, in which a person suddenly feels severe pain in the region of the heart, in the front wall, which can radiate to the lower back, interscapular area. Other signs are high pressure, which, when measured in different limbs, shows different data. When listening with a stethoscope, noise is detected in the aortic valve.
Pericarditis - An inflammatory disease of the outer lining of the heart (pericardium), which is involved in the contractile function of the heart muscle. It manifests itself as arrhythmias, weakness, low blood pressure, pressing with burning pain in the region of the heart, radiating to the epigastrium or trapezius muscle, aggravated by lying down, taking a deep breath. The causes are infections, allergies, other diseases of the cardiovascular system or nearby respiratory organs.
Chest pain caused by changes in the central nervous system
Chest pain can occur with other diseases. One of the most common diseases that cause frequent and prolonged pain in the chest is cardioneurosis, which develops against the background of a temporary functional disorder of the central nervous system. Neurosis is the body's response to various mental shocks (intense short-term or less intense, but long-term).
Pain with cardioneurosis can have a different nature, but most often they are constant, aching and felt in the region of the apex of the heart (in the lower part of the left half of the chest). Sometimes pain in cardioneurosis can resemble pain in angina pectoris (short-term acute), but they do not decrease with nitroglycerin. Often attacks of pain are accompanied by reactions from the autonomic nervous system in the form of facial redness, moderate heartbeat, and a slight increase in blood pressure. With cardioneurosis, there are almost always other signs of neurosis - increased anxiety, irritable weakness, etc. The elimination of psycho-traumatic circumstances, the correct regimen of the day, sedatives, and sleep disorders, sleep aid helps with cardioneurosis.
Sometimes cardioneurosis is difficult to distinguish from coronary heart disease (CHD), the diagnosis is usually established on the basis of careful monitoring of the patient, since there can be no changes on the ECG in either case.
Changes in the heart during the menopause can cause a similar picture. These disorders are caused by a change in the hormonal background, resulting in neurosis and metabolic disturbances in the heart muscle (menopause myocardiopathy). In this case, pains in the heart are combined with the characteristic manifestations of menopause: flushing of the face, bouts of sweating, chills and various disturbances of sensitivity in the form of "goosebumps", numbness of certain skin areas, etc. As with cardioneurosis, pain in the heart is not relieved by nitroglycerin, sedatives and hormone replacement therapy help.
What can hurt in the chest
The variety of reasons why the chest hurts, and the complexity of the decision is explained by the anatomy, coupled with physiology. This bone and cartilage formation, an important element of the body’s defense, has the structure of a closed hollow space.
Her skeleton is formed by:
- ribs connected to the vertebral column (12 thoracic vertebrae), sternum, protecting vulnerable injuries of the lungs, heart, liver, esophagus, major arteries, muscular skeleton, diaphragm, which plays the main role in the respiratory process, ligamentous apparatus.
Potentially, all of these organs and sites can be a source of pain. Analyzing why the chest can still hurt, one should recall the anatomical features of the female body, its reproductive system.
In women, the cause of pain in the sternum can additionally be:
- physiological pain that occurs as a reaction of the nervous system in response to various stimuli that damage or destroy the glandular and connective tissue of the female breast.The woman’s breasts are abundantly penetrated by nerve fibers, breast diseases - oncology, infectious inflammation, diseases of the fibrocystic nature, cyclical changes in the hormonal background - during menopause or associated with the menstrual cycle (changes in the neurohumoral regulation system, in the ovaries, uterus, and other internal genitals), pregnancy, chest injuries, surgical interventions.
The term “mastalgia” is used to indicate a feeling of discomfort or pain localized in any part of the mammary gland. This collective concept is not a diagnosis, but a clinically significant symptom complex. Another reason why the chest in men hurts is gynecomastia, a benign enlargement of the breast. Often observed in former athletes who abruptly stopped training, men with tumor diseases, endocrine gland disorders. The risk group also includes men who have been using hormonal, antipsychotic, and tranquilizers for a long time.
Pathology of the heart and blood vessels
Its sign is a dull ischemic pain in the chest just in the middle. It occurs in 95% of cases, more often in men.
Distinctive signs of the three main cardiac pathologies are presented in the table.
|Angina pectoris||The feeling of fullness in the chest, reflected pain for 3-15 minutes with radiation to the left arm, under the shoulder blade, passes independently after rest|
|Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)||Spilled soreness with stitching in the middle of the chest, does not disappear at rest, tends to increase, panic feeling of "animal" fear, profuse cold sweat|
|Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PE)||Inability to breathe due to a pulmonary thrombus|
Usually such a clinical picture is enough to make a preliminary diagnosis, which must be specified by laboratory and instrumental examination.
Circulatory system diseases
The heart is located in the central region of the chest, shifting slightly to the left. The discomfort that appears in it can be given to all parts of the chest, shoulder, neck. Below are the most common causes of his illness and what to do in each case.
If unpleasant sensations are observed in the middle part of the sternum, then this may indicate problems with the spine, namely:
- developing osteochondrosis. In this case, sternal pain in osteochondrosis will occur depending on the location of the body, appearing with a certain periodicity or differing in a constant nature. In these situations, you should not take pain medication yourself for osteochondrosis of the thoracic region, since such steps should be taken after consulting a doctor,
- intercostal neuralgia of the chest area. The nerve endings of the vertebral zone can be squeezed, which leads to cutting, painful colic. If chest diseases have arisen for this reason, then a person will have a pretty strong, throbbing pain in the middle region of the upper torso. Taking medications intended for the heart will not improve the painful condition.
Chest pain in diseases of the spine and ribs
Pain in the chest, very reminiscent of heart, can occur with various diseases of the spine, for example, with osteochondrosis, herniated discs, ankylosing spondylitis, etc.
Osteochondrosis is a dystrophic (metabolic) change in the spine. As a result of malnutrition or high physical exertion, bone and cartilage tissue, as well as special elastic pads between individual vertebrae (intervertebral discs) are gradually destroyed.Such changes cause compression of the roots of the spinal nerves, which causes pain. If changes occur in the thoracic spine, then the pain may be similar to pain in the heart or pain in the gastrointestinal tract. The pain may be constant or in the form of seizures, but it always intensifies with sudden movements. It is impossible to relieve such pain with nitroglycerin or antispasmodics, it can decrease only from painkillers or from heat.
Pain in the chest area can occur with a broken rib. These pains are associated with trauma, aggravated by a deep breath and movement.
Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER) - backfill of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus, which is accompanied by pressing or burning pain in the epigastric region, which can radiate to the back, nausea, heaviness or pain in the abdomen, flatulence. The main reason is excessive food intake and a sharp change in body position. GERD may become a complication.
Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - a disease of the gallbladder due to the presence of stones in this organ that impede the normal passage of bile, which leads to an inflammatory process. It is characterized by acute pain in the abdomen and lower sternum, colic in the right hypochondrium with a return to the sternum, back. The intensification of symptoms occurs with a sharp change in body position or its shake (cycling off-road, dancing), eating fatty foods, and the pain subsides when lying on a flat surface. Other symptoms include nausea, heaviness in the abdomen, vomiting, reluctance to eat.
Stomach ulcer - An inflammatory disease of the stomach, characterized by ulceration of its walls. In this case, the patient feels dull, sometimes exacerbating pain in the epigastric region or the lower part of the chest, heart region, right hypochondrium, nausea, heartburn, sour belching, bloating appears. Symptoms worsen with the use of fatty or spicy foods, pickles, alcohol.
Esophagitis - An inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, accompanied by a sensation of a lump in the throat, discomfort in the chest when eating food, and in some cases some other symptoms associated with digestion - heartburn, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, and acid belching. The main cause is infection, trauma to coarse food, a chemical or thermal burn, complication of GERD and other gastrointestinal diseases.
Esophageal rupture (Burhave syndrome) - It is accompanied by a sudden very strong and burning pain behind the sternum and epigastrium, which gives back, as well as impaired swallowing, vomiting, respiratory failure and the development of a shock state.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system
The most common culprits of pain in the sternum are heart disease. We are talking about diseases such as:
- Angina pectoris. A pathology in which blockages occur in the vessels supplying blood to the heart. This leads to oxygen starvation of the body, as well as a decrease in blood flow, which causes pain in the sternum. Unpleasant symptoms appear not only in the chest, but also give to the arm, back, and even the jaw. It seems to a person that the entire chest is contracting. As a rule, such sensations occur during severe stress or emotional stress.
- Myocardial infarction. A pathology in which blood through the artery stops flowing into the heart, not partially, but completely. Blockage of the vessel leads to such a dangerous condition, which is fraught with the death of heart muscle cells. In this case, the patient experiences more severe pain in the left side of the sternum (rather than with angina pectoris), which diverges throughout the chest and also gives into the arm, lasts for a long time (from 30 minutes or more). Pain sensations are pronounced burning character.
- Myocarditis. A disease characterized by not only pressing pains in the center of the sternum, but also impaired respiratory function and fever. Blockage of arteries with myocarditis does not occur. Despite this, the general symptomatology of the pathology is very similar to heart attack.
- Pericarditis. With inflammation of the pericardium (one of the heart membranes), this disease is diagnosed. Pain in pathology is very similar to those that bother patients with angina pectoris. We are talking about acute pain in the entire sternum of a compressive nature, which is given to the shoulder and arm. With pericarditis, pain can extend not only to the sternum, but also to the neck muscles. Most often, pain is aggravated by deep breathing, eating or lying on your back.
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Compaction of the heart muscle causing heart failure. This condition disrupts the normal functioning of the heart. As a result, the patient develops left-sided sternal pain of a burning nature, as well as concomitant symptomatology pathologies - fatigue, respiratory failure, insomnia, dizziness.
- Mitral heart disease. A violation in which the heart valve does not close completely. With this diagnosis, a person is tormented by aching pains in the central and left part of the sternum, heart palpitations, dizziness.
- Coronary atherosclerosis. Dangerous condition associated with obstruction of the coronary artery with cholesterol plaques. If the blood through the vessel ceases to pass completely, rupture of the coronary artery may occur. Against the background of pathology, the patient develops intolerable pain in the sternum or a sensation of a rupture in the chest. Pain can be given to the abdomen, back and neck.
Imitates cardiac symptoms of osteochondrosis (5%). A distinctive moment is that the pressing chest-chest discomfort depends on the position of the patient’s body (attack or constant symptom), decreases in the horizontal position, and increases when walking.
In addition, intercostal neuralgia can cause pain behind the sternum: compression of the nerve endings generates cutting colic with pulsation, intense soreness, and complete resistance to cardiac drugs. Diseases of the spine do not have gender differences; they occur equally often in men and women who violate the diet and lead a sedentary lifestyle.
Coronary heart disease (CHD)
This is a disease of the vessels that supply this organ. With improper nutrition and lifestyle, closer to old age, cholesterol is deposited on the inner walls of arteries - these are atherosclerotic plaques that narrow the lumen of the vessel and prevent the blood from adequately approaching the heart. There are attacks of ischemia, which are accompanied by sharp, sudden chest pains. The pressing pain in the sternum in the middle is characteristic. As a rule, the cause of the attacks is physical activity, at rest they pass.
To confirm coronary heart disease, an ECG, ECHO cardiogram, and special monitoring are used. But the diagnosis is easy to make and based only on complaints. Nitroglycerin preparations are prescribed to relieve seizures, ACE inhibitors, B-blockers, calcium antagonists, statins and other drugs to improve heart function and reduce the load on the myocardium are prescribed for treatment.
Neurological diseases and pathologies of the musculoskeletal system
Trying to find the answer to the question of why it hurts between the chest, many patients learn about the presence of pathologies of the spine.
They can be congenital, but in most situations these are acquired diseases that appear in the teenage or children's period. That is why, in childhood, one should not wait for pain in the pectoral muscle or other area to appear.
Parents should provide their children with preventive examinations, regularly showing up to the doctor.
Timely detected pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, at any age, will help to quickly alleviate the condition of the patient, thanks to correctly taken measures. In addition to osteochondrosis, scoliosis is often found in patients of different ages.
In the presence of these disorders, uncomfortable and painful tingling can concentrate in the central part of the sternum. These manifestations are observed not only due to curvature of the spine, but also arise due to the presence of cervical osteochondrosis.
Chest pain in lung diseases
The lungs occupy a large part of the chest. Pain in the chest can occur against the background of inflammatory diseases of the lungs, pleura, bronchi and trachea, with various injuries of the lungs and pleura, tumors and other diseases.
Most often, chest pain occurs with a disease of the pleura (a serous sac covering the lungs and consisting of two sheets between which the pleural cavity is located). With inflammation of the pleura, pain is usually associated with a cough, a deep breath and is accompanied by an increase in temperature. Sometimes such pain can be confused with heart pain, for example, with pain with pericarditis. Very severe chest pain occurs when germination of lung cancer in the pleura.
In some cases, air (pneumothorax) or fluid (hydrothorax) enters the pleural cavity. This can occur with lung abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis, etc. With spontaneous (spontaneous) pneumothorax there is a sharp sudden pain, shortness of breath, cyanosis, blood pressure decreases. It is difficult for the patient to breathe and move. Air irritates the pleura, causing severe stitching pain in the chest (on the side, on the side of the lesion), extending to the neck, upper limb, sometimes to the upper abdomen. The patient's chest volume increases, intercostal spaces expand. Help to such a patient can be provided only in a hospital.
Tracheitis - An inflammatory disease of the trachea, accompanied by pain in the upper chest, as well as symptoms such as coughing, respiratory discomfort, fever or fever, weakness. The main reason is infection, hypothermia, complication of infectious diseases of other organs or systems, often laryngitis or bronchitis.
Bronchitis - An inflammatory disease of the bronchi, which is the area of the airways between the trachea and lungs. The main symptoms are cough, pain behind the sternum (in the central part), shortness of breath, fever, weakness. The causes are infections, hypothermia, a complication of other diseases.
Pneumonia - An inflammatory disease of the lungs, characterized by pain behind the sternum at the site of the lesion of the lung (or both lungs), as well as cough, weakness, fever, chills, difficulty breathing. The reasons are infection, hypothermia.
Pleurisy - An inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane covering the lungs, characterized by impaired motor function of the lungs, which leads to shortness of breath, impaired respiratory function, discomfort and pain in the chest. The main cause of infection. The disease usually develops as a complication of other acute respiratory infections (pneumonia).
Pulmonary tuberculosis - an infectious disease characterized by lung damage caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Symptoms - chest pain that can radiate to the area of the shoulder blades and hypochondria, as well as wheezing during breathing, swollen lymph nodes, coughing and rapid weight loss, shortness of breath, fever, and weakness.
How to recognize the cause of pain
To decide what to do if your chest hurts, whether it is worth calling an ambulance, you need to diagnose the condition of your body and try to determine the cause of the pain yourself by symptoms. The origin of pain can be judged by their nature, intensity, localization and what other symptoms prevail in the clinical picture.
First of all, attention should be paid to the time factor. What signs can exclude cardiology and suspect neuralgia:
- the constant pain that persists day and night in the morning can subside, intensify when walking, the place where the discomfort is felt usually usually corresponds exactly to the localization of the pathological process. The phenomenon of irradiation can be observed when the process of excitation spreads to other nerve centers, responds in the lower back, shoulder girdle. In such cases, there is a characteristic increase in pain during physical exertion, with laughter, sneezing, deep breaths, coughing, pressing on points located along the spine, pain begins to be felt or its intensity increases, local temperature increase, hyperemia, muscle pain, increasing with tilting the body forward, raising or stretching arms, turning shoulders, pinching the nerve is accompanied by numbness of the area in which the compression occurred, the pain state is one-time, associated with a certain action viem or situation - excessive congestion, colds, colds, as well as the failure of the movement or sudden slope or injury.
With heart ailments, clear local pain is rare, there is a predominantly reflected periodic pain that does not last constantly, often manifested by seizures. What symptoms should I look for?
- bakes, achs chest, traces the connection with food intake - diagnosed with gastritis, ulcer, colitis or pancreatitis. The violation is accompanied by heartburn, belching, upset stool, it hurts in the center of the chest or in the upper part - a cold, most likely bronchitis, or heart problems, it hurts above the chest - we can assume the consequence of drafts, lifting weights, it breaks the chest, monotonously aches in the chest , difficulty breathing, sweating may have increased, dizziness has appeared, but no other obvious symptoms are detected - stresses, anxiety, negative emotions, neuroses, non-breathing associated with it are constantly pressing I, sometimes piercing pain (especially in the area of the mammary gland) - the situation should alert, because this may be a sign of the formation of a malignant tumor, paroxysmal pain that occurs behind the chest, lasting 3-5 minutes, a feeling of pressure, burning, tightening in the heart region or more broadly on the left - probably angina, often against the background of emotional stress or physical overload.
Acute myocardial infarction
Usually a heart attack is the outcome of prolonged coronary heart disease (Coronary heart disease), but it happens that it occurs abruptly, without any prerequisites. In the presence of diseases, the therapy is carried out and consulted by a cardiologist and cardiac surgeon.
The basis of this condition is a sharp violation of the blood flow to the area of the heart, which begins to die.
A heart attack is accompanied by sharp severe pains in the chest (if before that there was coronary heart disease, the pain is usually much stronger), nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and loss of consciousness are possible. Pain with a heart attack can be both in the left and in the center of the sternum, above it, can even be in the abdomen. A painless form of myocardial infarction also happens - more often in diabetics.
With a sharp deterioration in overall health, which is accompanied by the above symptoms, especially in the presence of diagnosed coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis (the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis is written here), it is urgent to call an ambulance, which will be said in the hospital.
There is an atypical course of angina pectoris, when an attack of pain behind the sternum, shortness of breath, appears at night alone, and during the day with physical activity practically does not bother anything. This form is called prinzmetal angina. Features of the appearance of pain are extremely important for the diagnosis of the disease. Many patients keep a diary where they record when, at what time, and after which sensations arose behind the sternum, why they disappeared.This is very convenient for the doctor - the anamnesis of the disease immediately appears.
The pains that appear against the background of problems with the musculoskeletal system are quite intense and pressing. They intensify as soon as the patient takes a lying position.
To treat the mentioned pathologies, as well as to eliminate the symptoms that have arisen, experts prescribe exercise therapy, diet food, as well as the restoration of the psychoemotional background. The fact is that a large percentage of seizures are observed due to overstrain, as well as nervous breakdowns.
If you need to urgently stop the intolerable manifestations of the disease, you can use anti-inflammatory drugs (Capsicam or Diclofenac), but this does not mean that you should completely trust the medications and exclude going to the doctor.
Digestive system problems
The digestive system can produce symptomatic tenderness behind the sternum. The type of pain is very different.
|Disease||Characterization of pain|
|Spasm of the hollow organs of the food tube: esophagus, gall bladder, stomach||Aching pain, aggravated by palpation of the epigastrium, radiating to the back|
|Acute pancreatitis||Burning pain in the sternum before and after meals, relieves antispasmodics|
|Esophagitis||Heartburn, belching, lump in throat with slight retrosternal discomfort|
|Jabzh||Pain reminiscent of heart, localized in the center of the sternum, but appearing a couple of hours after eating and disappearing if something is eaten|
|Diaphragm abscess||Painful cough fever|
|Gastroesophageal Reflux||It is characterized by burning chest discomfort with constant nausea.|
Men who abuse bad habits and eat food at any time convenient for them suffer such diseases more often.
Not infrequently cause chest pain lung disease. Most often, the pain syndrome provokes banal viral infections, as well as bacterial lesions. Less commonly, more serious diseases, such as cancer, become the cause of discomfort in the chest area.
Consider the most common:
- Pleurisy. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the lungs, which is characterized by acute pain in the sternum during inhalation and exhalation. In addition to pain, a person is disturbed by an intense cough, as well as frequent sneezing.
- Pneumonia. A common cause of sudden pain in the entire sternum that occurs against the background of an infectious process in the lungs. Pathology is accompanied not only by pain, but also by other symptoms - intense cough, fever, profuse discharge of sputum.
- Pneumothorax. Damage to the lungs, in which the integrity of the organ is violated and the air enters the chest cavity. This process is accompanied by severe pain in the left and right parts of the sternum, which intensify with deep breaths.
- Pulmonary hypertension. A disease in which a patient has an increased blood pressure in the lungs and near large vessels. In this regard, the right side of the heart muscle begins to work more intensively, which causes pain of a characteristic localization - on the right side of the sternum. With pulmonary hypertension, the pain syndrome is very similar to the pain that appears during an attack of angina pectoris.
- Asthma. Inflammation of the respiratory tract. The patient is tormented by a strong cough, shortness of breath, "whistling" breathing, sometimes - pressing pains in the central part of the sternum, trachea.
Neuralgia - a disease of a neurological nature, associated primarily with inflammatory processes in nerve fibers. The reasons can be various - from infection, for example with shingles, and destructive changes in the spine (osteochondrosis, protrusion, scoliosis, and others).In addition to discomfort and pain in the chest, often from the back and between the ribs, it can be accompanied by increased sensitivity of the skin at the site of the lesion, numbness, local seizures, rash, which depends on the etiology of the disease. According to localization, on today's topic, intercostal neuralgia is popular.
Stress - severe nervous strain, which can lead to respiratory disorders and discomfort, and sometimes pain in the chest.
How to treat and what to do with chest pain
Only the qualified physician can accurately determine the root cause of the pain syndrome by conducting a survey, an initial examination, and laboratory diagnostic tests. Each specific situation requires the use of its specially selected treatment regimen. Which doctor to contact: patients with complaints of chest pain help a therapist, neurologist, cardiologist, and if necessary, a specialist doctor - a pulmonologist, gastroenterologist, oncologist.
What to do with chest pain: if this is not a manifestation of scoliosis, but the result of the influence of psychological factors, sedative, psychotropic drugs can help.
Conditions requiring an emergency response:
- dull, prolonged pain, lasting from half an hour to a day or more, when the entire front part of the chest hurts, while taking nitroglycerin preparations does not lead to regression - myocardial infarction, radiation to the left hypochondrium, shoulder, armpit, neck, jaw, intolerable cutting pain in any area, severe bursting pain (often swelling of the upper extremities, neck), wandering along the spine, indicates a thoracic aortic aneurysm. If a slow pulse, cyanosis, fainting is observed, then this indicates aortic dissection - a process that poses a mortal danger, sudden acute pain during breathing, along with coughing, fever, coughing up sputum with blood - pulmonary embolism, is life-threatening. May lead to pulmonary infarction, persistent hypotension, shock, additional manifestations - lack of air, lump in the throat, impaired consciousness, palpitations, persistent increase or decrease in blood pressure, vomiting.
In any case, it is not worth postponing a visit to a doctor; treatment should be timely and comprehensive.
In the heart, as in other organs, there may be a skid of infection with the subsequent development of inflammation. A common example is endocarditis caused by streptococci, which are introduced with a blood stream from chronic foci of infection, for example, the throat (for the treatment of sinusitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, see these articles), if necessary, consult an ENT doctor. Streptococci affect the valves of the heart valves, this can provoke pain and a disturbance in the rhythm of the heartbeat.
An anamnesis (presence of a focus of infection), ECG, echocardiography will help to make a diagnosis. The doctor listens to the chest and can detect characteristic changes in tones. Antibiotics are prescribed for treatment.
Many other congenital and acquired diseases of the central circulatory system can cause the sternum to hurt or ache. These pains do not differ in intensity, are located more often in the left half of the chest and do not always require special treatment.
Therapy of a disease associated with the cardiac system is carried out by a cardiologist.
Heart and vascular disease
Cardiac ailments (angina pectoris or heart attack) can also act as “provocateurs” of pain in the chest area. These two diseases are accompanied by the following manifestations:
- the appearance of acute pain,
- discomfort is given to the left zone.
If pain develops in the left side of the chest, you should not wait for rescue from pills, it is better to immediately call an ambulance.
Costochondritis - An inflammatory disease of the cartilage, which leads to their degeneration at the site where the ribs and sternum connect. Due to the location, this symptomatic process resembles angina pectoris and other heart problems. Patients complain of acute and pressing pain in the center of the sternum (at the junction between the 2nd and 5th rib), radiating to the costal muscles, aggravated by an attempt to take a deep breath. The causes are injuries, a blow to the chest, infections, arthritis, oncology.
Osteochondrosis - a disease of the spine, characterized by degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the intervertebral discs, with subsequent involvement in the pathological process of the vertebrae. A person can feel pain in the chest due to a pinched, and after an inflamed nerve emerging from the spinal column at the site of the disease. Other symptoms may include numbness, impaired sensation, and breathing problems.
Respiratory system diseases
This pathology has one distinctive feature - cough. Therefore, any sternal discomfort, accompanied by shortness of breath, cough reflex, sneezing, indicates diseases of the bronchopulmonary tree. Additional features include:
- cyanosis of the skin,
- shortness of breath
- heart rhythm disturbance.
More often, such manifestations appear in people who smoke.
Common causes depending on the localization of pain
Chest pain in the middle - angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, pericarditis, aortic dissection, bronchitis, pleurisy, pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, gastroesophageal reflux, costochondritis, osteochondrosis, scoliosis, radiculitis, spondylosis, pancreatitis, esophagitis, gastric ulcer, gastritis.
Left chest pain - myocardial infarction, pericarditis, endocarditis, myocarditis, intercostal neuralgia, osteochondrosis, spondylosis, pancreatitis.
Chest pain on the right - intercostal neuralgia, cirrhosis, gallstone disease, osteochondrosis, spondylosis.
Chest pain on top - tracheitis, osteochondrosis, spondylosis.
Chest pain from below - exacerbation of bronchial asthma, colitis.
Note that the appearance of constricting sensations also belongs to the manifestations of angina pectoris.
The constricting pains literally constrain, not allowing the slightest movement. This attack is popularly referred to as "angina pectoris."
Uncomfortable manifestations can be reflected both from the left zone and in the sternum itself. The patient may feel the presence of a foreign object within himself. Stitching and aching tremors periodically occur in the area of the scapula, hand or in the area of the left shoulder, while they will be accompanied by a slight burning sensation.
In order to alleviate the condition, it is enough to use a tablet of Nitroglycerin. It is placed under the tongue.
Chest pain in men
It turns out that the chest in men and women hurts in different ways. Physical activity is the main reason for such troubles in a strong half of humanity. The mechanism of pain development is simple: hyperusilia creates ischemia, which disrupts nutrition, oxygen supply of the main internal organs, tissues. Occurs:
- heart failure with stitching pain behind the sternum,
- scoliosis with constant aching sternal discomfort,
- diaphragmatic hernia, manifested by severe soreness in a horizontal and sitting position, but disappearing if a person is standing upright,
- hypertension with shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, fainting,
- arthralgia of different localization with radiation to the chest area,
- rib fracture with cutting pain.
In addition, heavy smokers form a persistent soreness with a pathological nicotine cough. Causes of chest pain can be associated with bruises, falls, boxing, wrestling, weightlifting. Somehow, the cause of the pain must be established.
Bronchitis, bronchial asthma and other diseases of the bronchi
With various infections, prolonged smoking, work with harmful substances, damage to the tissues of the bronchi occurs and bronchitis occurs. In this case, pain often appears in the middle of the sternum, associated with muscle tension during coughing, which can be dry or wet. The bronchi themselves cannot hurt - they have pain receptors.
The pains are usually located in the middle, or on the side where the inflammation is greater. Strengthens with inspiration and with coughing.
Bronchial asthma stands apart - this is a chronic, allergic-caused disease of the bronchi. It manifests itself in periodic attacks of suffocation, with difficulty exhaling.
To diagnose bronchitis, the doctor listens to the lungs with a stethoscope. Lesions of the bronchi are visible on fluorography, CT, MRI. In uncertain cases, bronchoscopy is performed - the camera is inserted directly into the bronchi and examined from the inside. Bronchial asthma is established using special breathing tests.
Depending on the cause of bronchitis, antibiotics, expectorants (if the cough is dry), anticholinergics to expand the lumen of the bronchi are prescribed. About treatment regimens for acute bronchitis napsiano here. What to do for the treatment of bronchial asthma, the doctor will say. He selects a special treatment that includes a combination of drugs.
The development of this pathology leads not only to pain during the inflammatory processes "attacking" the heart muscle, but also to:
- difficulty breathing.
Despite the fact that the arteries are not blocked in this disease, the manifestations of myocarditis can be very similar to the symptoms of a heart attack.
Female pains behind the sternum
The chest of women in women most often hurts precisely in the middle due to stress, emotions, experiences. In addition, they can provoke discomfort:
- mastopathy with radiating pain in the sternum,
- goiter with pressure drops and intermittent pain,
- overweight on the spine,
- tight underwear compressing nerve endings
- bad habits,
- PMS with breast engorgement before menstruation,
- breast tumors with burning sensation around the glands and reflected pain behind the sternum.
Sometimes it’s quite difficult to understand why it hurts here, mandatory consultation of a specialist is required.
Pneumonia and pneumonitis
When bacteria, viruses or chronic inhalation of small particles of dust get into the lung tissue, inflammation occurs. The lungs themselves do not hurt. They have pain receptors. Pleura can hurt when the inflammatory process spreads further. If the inflammation is caused by an infection, there is a fever, cough, feeling unwell - for example, like the flu. With chronic damage to the lungs by dispersion suspension in the air, unproductive cough and discomfort in the sternum come to the fore.
A mild respiratory tract infection can be cured at home: bed rest, hot tea with herbal infusions, expectorant drugs, vitamins. In severe illness, accompanied by fever, severe weakness and pain, it is necessary to call a doctor who will give recommendations on what to do.
When pain occurs in the sternum, patients rarely write them off to problems and malfunctions of the digestive tract. As practice shows, in vain. They often lead to the appearance of painful sensations. The most common diseases:
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. It manifests itself as heartburn and pain in the central upper part of the sternum. It occurs as a result of throwing the contents of the stomach into the esophagus. Very often, this disease can be confused with heart ailments, since it seems to the patient that the heart hurts, which is located in the immediate vicinity of the esophagus and is connected to it by nerve endings. At the same time, a person complains of burning and pressing pain that occurs after eating or intense physical exertion.
- Stomach ulcer. May cause persistent pain in the lower sternum and throat. The main problem with this pathology lies in the presence of ulcers on the gastric mucosa. In this case, light meals, regular baking soda, or tablets used to treat the stomach can help cope with pain.
- Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas usually causes pain in the lower chest. In this case, the patient's condition worsens with sharp bends forward or in a prone position.
- Diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract. Pain in the sternum with pathologies of the bile appears after eating fatty foods. A person complains of severity in the stomach, as well as unpleasant pain in the lower right chest.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system
The aforementioned diseases of blood vessels and the heart, as well as such an ailment as thromboembolism, are the most common “culprits” of the appearance of discomfort in the upper body. The patient can observe the following manifestations:
- tingling in the central area of the chest, the appearance of panic fear, squeezing in the left area, and the pain can spread throughout the chest area. All these symptoms indicate the development of myocardial infarction,
- a sensation of an enlargement of the chest, stitching tremors appear in the region of the left arm or under the shoulder blade, when the horizontal position is taken, the pains do not disappear, and can subside only after 5-15 minutes. This behavior of the body says that the patient has angina pectoris,
- discomfort during inspiration. This is possible in the presence of a thrombus formed in the area of the pulmonary artery. This is how thromboembolism develops.
Symptoms of retrosternal pain
To understand the essence of what is happening, you need to connect the causes with the accompanying symptoms. Indeed, conditions may arise that require emergency care, and there may be only functional disorders. They manifest themselves in different ways. From this point of view, the symptoms should be analyzed by:
- type (dull or sharp)
- character (stabs, cuts, crushes, burns),
- localization (right, left, center),
- irradiation (under the shoulder blade, in the shoulder, jaw),
- time of appearance (day, night),
- connection with physical activity, nutrition, movement, cough,
- to what is docked.
At the same time, for the correct diagnosis, not only symptomatology is important, but also a carefully collected history, a hereditary predisposition to one or another pathology.
To answer the question why a man or woman has a chest pain, you can only analyze the sensations of discomfort.
|If there is a pressing sensation behind the sternum||This is myocardial ischemia, the essence of which is cardiac muscle necrosis with a long recovery period: this happens with angina pectoris or a pre-infarction state|
|If there is a cross||This is about:|
|If the chest burns and hurts||This suggests:|
|If there is a throbbing soreness in the sternum||It:|
|If the discomfort of a aching character||The bottom line is the result of sluggish cardiological diseases or a consequence of extracardiac problems, this occurs with:|
Spilled chest pain, which gives a burning sensation, is especially dangerous. This indicates acute pathology, requires immediate medical attention in a hospital. The pressing pain, which is most often found in the mediastinum, threatens a fatal outcome in case of intensity (like a stone was placed on the chest).
The main reason for the appearance of pain in the middle of the sternum is injury. They can be very diverse - from a banal fall from a height to a chest stroke on the steering wheel during an accident. If after the incident there is pain in the sternum, you need to see a doctor. The specialist will determine if the pain is a consequence of serious damage to internal organs. If the injury is insignificant, then within a few days the pain will pass after correctly selected treatment.
A frequent “culprit” of pain in the sternum is a fracture of a rib or several ribs. In this case, the pains concentrate at the fracture site and intensify with pressure on the problem area, deep breath and cough.
How to distinguish neuralgia from angina pectoris
In the presence of angina pectoris, pain in the chest is displayed as a "spilling" state. In the presence of neuralgia, discomfort is felt in a particular area. In addition, in the second case, the unpleasant sensations begin to gradually subside as soon as the patient takes a lying position.
The level of intensity of uncomfortable manifestations will not depend on physical activity. If you take the medicine (Nitroglycerin), the pain will begin to subside.
If there is a neuralgic pathology or heart attack, then after taking the drug, the patient's condition will not improve.
Ignoring pain on the left side of the chest is strongly discouraged. In such situations, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Tumors of the respiratory system
Unfortunately, lung cancer comes first among other tumor diseases and has a high mortality rate. In the early stages, the tumor is very small, and may not manifest itself in any way. Pain in the sternum is a variant of the first symptoms that requires diagnosis. Sometimes chronic dry cough without progression is added.
What to do if a cough persists for a long time - this is to conduct a fluorography. In addition, you need to take blood tests, sometimes bronchoscopy is prescribed.
If you have similar symptoms, you can consult a physician and pulmonologist.
Other causes and diseases
In addition to the above diseases, chest pain can cause:
- Stress. They cause pain in the chest, the so-called psychogenic nature. They appear with strong emotional stress and feelings amid spasm of the pectoral muscles.
- Sedentary lifestyle. It leads to constriction of the muscles of the chest, which, with reduced physical activity, are compressed even more.
- Any kind of cough. Causes tendon and intercostal muscle irritation. Excessive muscle tension provokes pain in the sternum of a characteristic localization.
- Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
- Diaphragmatic hernia.
- Intercostal neuralgia.
- Congenital pathology of the spinal column.
Without consulting a specialist, it is very difficult to establish the true causes of the appearance of pain in the sternum. That is why, when they appear, it is worth making an appointment with a doctor.
What to do if the sternum hurts
The cause of pain in the chest area can be not only somatic pathology, but also trauma. This is a very dangerous condition that requires quick correction, since damage to vital organs is possible. After an injury it is necessary:
- give the patient a sitting or semi-sitting position,
- loosen tight clothing
- provide maximum peace
- grind whiskey with ammonia,
- give sedative and vasodilator drops (Corvalol, Motherwort, Valocordin) - this will improve the work of the myocardium,
- for severe pain - a couple of painkillers tablets for the prevention of shock (Ketorol, Ketanov, Analgin),
- cold on the chest
- if the fracture is visualized, provide immobilization,
- warm the victim
- be close to the ambulance.
If the injury is caused by an injury, it is necessary to treat the surrounding tissue with an antiseptic (Miramistin, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, brilliant green), apply a sterile dressing, cold to the wound.
The tactics for the treatment of somatic pathology is complex. The main purpose of therapy is to relieve pain. For this, different groups of drugs are used in accordance with the cause of the pathology.
With angina pector, Nitroglycerin tablets under the tongue are enough, if after 5 minutes there is no result, you need to call an ambulance, since the patient’s life (AMI) depends on it.
In the future, a mandatory course of respiratory gymnastics.
The entire treatment period requires exclusion from the diet of fried, spicy dishes, freshly squeezed juices, sweets.
Thoracic osteochondrosis involves a set of special exercises.
Intercostal neuralgia involves an injection course.
|Nervous system||Cardioneurosis requires a special regimen of the day, elimination of stressful situations, diet therapy with a predominance of vitamins C, A, PP and group B, relaxing massage, needle and vacuum therapy, herbal remedies: hawthorn, valerian, shift, veronica, sweet clover, oregano, St. John's wort, strawberries , hyssop, calendula, nettle.|
Men and women are equally often associated with chest pains, therefore, an indicative treatment regimen for its relief is common.
Problems with the stomach or esophagus
Observing pain in the central zone of the upper part of the body or a characteristic burning sensation in the chest area, experts suspect the presence of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. As a rule, the culprits are:
- acute reflux esophagitis,
- gastritis, which has reached a chronic form of development.
What to do?
If there are sternal pains, one should act based on the assumptions that they could have caused.
If the pain in the sternum occurs for the first time and is not too pronounced, you can try to drink any painkiller. For example, paracetamol. The drug will help relieve muscle spasm and will quickly alleviate the condition.
If there is a suspicion of spasmodic pain, doctors recommend taking a warm bath or applying heat to the chest (for example, a warm but not hot heating pad). This technique will help the muscles to relax quickly, and as a result, the pain will recede.
Patients suffering from diseases of the digestive tract, who are aware of their problem, should focus on fractional nutrition. If the pain appeared after eating, you can drink enzyme-containing drugs (for example, Festal or Creon) or a small amount of mineral water.
If you suspect a "cardiac" origin of the pain, it is important to immediately call an ambulance crew and ensure that the person is completely at peace before the doctors arrive.
When Ambulance is needed
There are a number of verified signs, symptoms, which are an unconditional reason for calling an ambulance:
- unpleasant retrosternal sensations do not pass within half an hour (regardless of the degree of intensity) - a sign of pre-infarction,
- unbearable pain behind the sternum, indifferent to Nitroglycerin,
- dyspnea at rest - a sign of angina pectoris with a risk of transformation into a heart attack,
- headache with dizziness, loss of orientation in space,
- visually distinguishable paralysis, paresis,
- facial asymmetry, loss of control over facial expressions,
- syncope syncope - a sign of cerebral ischemia, the risk of stroke,
- speech retardation,
- hearing impairment, vision,
- confused consciousness
- pallor of the skin
- nasolabial triangle cyanosis.
All these signs do not give a 100% signal about a developing heart attack or stroke, but they occur in acute conditions in almost 90% of cases. This obliges people around the patient to act quickly and clearly.
Gastroesophageal reflux, hiatal hernia
The esophagus passes through the center of the sternum - this is the tube through which food is passed into the stomach. In this place, heartburn may appear - this is a burning sensation behind the sternum or in the sternum in the middle. Heartburn occurs when gastric juice enters the esophagus from the stomach. This occurs when the “valve” of the esophagus is disrupted, as well as in the presence of a hiatal hernia.
Heartburn pain appears after eating (or on an empty stomach), after moving to a lying position, after oily and spicy food. To stop heartburn, you can take "Rennie", "Gastal", "Almagel", but if she often bothers, it is better to consult a doctor who will recommend what to do. With large hernias, a surgical operation is performed. You can see effective medications for pain in the stomach here.
Chest pain above the solar plexus
The causes are inflammatory processes that affect the walls of the stomach. This leads to the release of the contents of the organ directly into the esophagus. These conditions can lead to:
- Stressful situations.
- The abuse of alcohol.
- Smoking, as well as addiction to spicy foods.
When should I call a doctor immediately?
With some types of pain in the sternum and concomitant symptoms, it is impossible to delay in calling an ambulance. Immediately call the "ambulance" should be in such situations:
- pain in the sternum appeared after intense physical exertion,
- pain is accompanied by severe coughing (including blood) or loss of consciousness,
- the pain is burning in nature and extends not only to the sternum, but also to the area of the shoulders, arms, neck, lower jaw,
- the attack does not go away within 10-15 minutes, including after resting and taking nitroglycerin,
- pain is accompanied by tachycardia, dizziness, nausea or vomiting, sweating, fainting,
- soreness in the sternum feels like heartburn, but the usual pills for heartburn do not relieve it.
Gastritis, stomach ulcer
Although the stomach is below the rib cage, pain from it can be transmitted to the sternum. The most common disease of the stomach is gastritis, more than half the people on the planet suffer from it. At the time of exacerbation, aching dull pains appear on the left under the ribs, or in the sternum on the left.
Gastritis can gradually turn into a stomach ulcer - this is a dangerous condition that requires special treatment. FGDS is carried out for diagnosis: with the help of a camera, the doctor examines both the esophagus and stomach, after which he will give recommendations on what to do.
Gastritis is treated with drugs that suppress acid production (when acidity, on the contrary, is reduced, other drugs are prescribed) - gastroprotectors. In case of an open ulcer, surgery is performed.
A gastroenterologist will help to cope with a problem in the stomach.
It's a dull pain
If the pathology of the LC tract became the cause of the pain, then the following symptoms can be observed:
- aching squeezes in the left and central region,
- uncomfortable aching sensations in the upper abdomen,
- the appearance of heartburn and constant heat in the larynx,
- nausea with pain in the middle of the chest, in some cases, vomiting.
The sudden appearance of severe pain in the sternum of any localization can pose a threat not only to the health, but also to the life of the patient, as it is most often caused by a dangerous disease or pathology.
Doctors recommend acting according to the following scheme to help the patient and “win” precious time before the doctors arrive:
- to put a person in a comfortable position, to ensure the flow of fresh air into the room,
- give a drink appropriate for the age dose of nitroglycerin,
- take an analgesic
- apply a pepper patch or mustard to the place of localization of pain for 5-7 minutes.
Sore throat and lump
Such symptoms also appear with the development of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Problems during swallowing (sensation of a lump in the throat), if there is a serious disorder inside, can be eliminated only by complex treatment, revealing the type of developing disease.
To reduce the manifestations of the disease, it is recommended to abandon bad habits.
Failures in the functioning of the LCD tract are accompanied by soreness in the central part of the chest. Unpleasant sensations arise due to cramping of the esophagus, as well as the stomach and even the gall bladder. In this case, there will be no burning sensation behind the sternum, as with osteochondrosis.
The patient will experience dull, aching pain, which will intensify its manifestation with pressure on the epigastric zone. Often discomfort is given to the back.
If the esophagus and other organs mentioned above hurt, one should not start independent treatment, it is better to consult a doctor immediately and undergo the necessary examinations.
When a bone in the middle of the chest hurts, we can almost always determine the probable causes of such sensations. But when the disease affects the lower part of the diaphragm (a muscle tube located between the abdominal and chest cavity), it is difficult to find intelligible answers.
This pathology is called "subphrenic abscess", during which purulent formations appear in the cavity. The fight against such a disease is often carried out by the surgical method.
If there is a need to immediately eliminate pain, you should give preference to a medication of the NSAID category (Ketanov, Ibufen, etc.). To prevent infection of nearby healthy tissues, Ciprolet is most often used.
This is an inflammatory process in the nerves passing between the ribs, or their pinching. This is accompanied by unpleasant, pulling sensations to the left or right of the sternum. They can appear after hypothermia, sleep in an uncomfortable position, awkward movement. The causes of aching pain in the middle of the sternum in women are more often precisely in neuralgia.
Neuralgia can pass by itself, anti-inflammatory ointments accelerate recovery. In severe cases, the neurologist will select individual therapy.
Also, massage therapists and manual therapists will help to correct muscle tension in the back and get rid of pain.
Pathologies affecting the bronchopulmonary system
Dull painful "bells" appearing in the chest area may indicate the presence of diseases affecting the respiratory system. This symptom often appears during development:
- pleurisy, as well as bronchitis.
If pain is observed on the left side in the upper chest or in the right side, you should also beware.
The most frequently mentioned diseases are accompanied by the difficulty in taking a deep breath.
It is very easy to explain the occurrence of these pathologies. Inflammatory processes in the lungs can affect the intercostal muscles, as well as the diaphragm zone. That is why the patient notices that the chest may hurt in the left side. Moreover, pain can appear in other areas, and they occur with any muscle contraction.
Additional symptoms include fever. In addition, a prolonged cough often appears.
Even infrequent and not too intense pain in the sternum can lead to very sad consequences and complications. The latter depend on why the chest pains appeared.
The result of ignoring pain attacks in the sternum can be:
- chronic pain in the chest, a feeling of stiffness between the ribs,
- body oxygen starvation,
- violation of the normal mobility of the arms and shoulders,
- neuralgia of various origins,
- respiratory failure, up to respiratory arrest.
The most serious complications of sternum pain are related to heart disease. We are talking about heart attacks and strokes, which can be fatal.
Causes of pain in the center of the sternum in women
Why does the chest hurt in women? The answer to this question is very simple for many, and absolutely every woman will immediately rush to examine the mammary glands for the presence of a malignant tumor. This pathology is not uncommon, but it should be remembered that the occurrence of pain in the right side of the chest or left indicates that the formation is at a late stage of development. In this case, other unpleasant symptoms appear, in the form of discharge from the nipples, palpable tumors.
Most often, pain occurs with the development of mastopathy. The disease originates directly in the mammary glands, and not in the middle of the chest, as many people think.
In addition, if it hurts on the right side of the chest or in other areas, then a woman may develop a disease that affects the thyroid gland. Many pathologies are reflected in chest pain, namely:
These diseases occur against the background of the appearance of a coma in the throat, the observation of constant heat in the head, as well as pressure drops. In addition, a woman may experience weakness, and face changes in weight.
It is worth noting that pain in the back and chest area can occur with excessive physical exertion, so if you did complex work or were actively engaged in the gym, you should not sound the alarm.
On the other hand, the occurrence of characteristic uncomfortable sensations after physical work can be observed after depression, in the presence of nervous exhaustion, injuries, bruises, etc.
When urgently need to see a doctor
As can be seen from the above, all the reasons for which were listed, requires an individual approach.
Particular attention should be paid to pain when it is very strong, accompanied by shortness of breath, fever, nausea and vomiting, or simply does not go away for a long time. In these cases, you should definitely consult a doctor.
Thus, pain in the sternum can occur due to the mass of heterogeneous causes, and it is not always easy to make the correct diagnosis. For proper therapy, it is necessary to undergo the necessary diagnostics prescribed by a medical professional.
The best prevention of sternal pain remains a healthy lifestyle, of course, proper nutrition and timely diagnosis. Remember that only a doctor can make a correct diagnosis, try not to get involved in self-medication.
Depends on the root causes of pain in the sternum, as well as the correctness and timeliness of care for the patient.
Is it a short-term malfunction of the heart or gastrointestinal tract, not severe pathologies of the bronchopulmonary system? Adequate drug therapy can help solve the problem and completely get rid of it.
With serious cardiac pathology, the prognosis is less favorable - the patient may face disability or even death.
Psychological diseases amid stress
What to do with back pain between the shoulder blades? Or how to calm the muscles of the ribs if your back and chest hurt? Finding answers to these questions on their own is very problematic, especially if they appear against the background of stressful situations.
You will be surprised, but problems with the chest, stomach, and abdominal pains are closely related to psychological pathologies, and are accompanied by so-called psychogenic pains.
Similar diseases can occur if people are very worried. In the process, muscle compression is observed, as cramps occur in the chest.
If in the presence of such disorders people limit physical activity, for various reasons, then it is very difficult to eliminate pain in the lower chest or in the upper part of it. The fact is that it is impossible to get rid of muscle blocks while in a constant sitting position.
Frequently Asked Questions and Doctor's Answer
Sternal painwhen moving
- “Possible pathologies: osteochondrosis, neuralgia, pleurisy.”
Sternum pain and dry cough
- “Possible pathologies: bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, oncology.”
Inhalation of sternum pain
- “Possible pathologies: osteochondrosis, neuralgia, pleurisy, bronchitis, pneumonia.”
Sternum pain after eating
- “Possible pathologies: gastritis, ulcer.”
It hurts in the sternum and gives back
- “Possible pathologies: coronary heart disease, heart attack, osteochondrosis, neuralgia, pleurisy, bronchitis, pneumonia.”
Pain in the sternum and radiates to the back between the shoulder blades
- “Possible pathologies: coronary heart disease, heart attack, endocarditis, pleurisy, ulcer.”
What organs are located in the chest
The chest is an integral part of the body. It includes the chest cavity, where are located:
- respiratory organs
- organs of the heart, as well as the vascular system,
- bone tissue (spine, sternum, ribs).
That is why, when pain occurs in the chest area, the spine, as well as other parts of the body, can be affected by serious diseases that cause unpleasant sensations.
The chest cavity contains the bronchopulmonary system, includes the thoracic vertebrae, as well as the heart and numerous arteries that provide blood to the heart muscle. Also in the chest is the diaphragmatic tube (upper part) and the esophagus.
When it hurts under the shoulder blades, a variety of processes can occur in the chest, so it is very important to undergo a timely examination, if any unpleasant sensations are detected.
How to determine what the pain behind the sternum speaks of
When the chest area is burning, and other unpleasant manifestations are observed, this indicates a violation in the functioning of one of the systems. If you carefully study the signs, you can easily identify the reason why the ailment arose:
- if it hurts very much in the side of the chest when coughing, then it can be pneumonia or laryngotracheitis,
- when you try to take a deep breath, a stomach ulcer or bronchitis develops. There may also be a rib injury or pericarditis,
- discomfort after eating food - an ulcer, esophagitis or reflux,
- during movement - the development of intercostal neuralgia or such a dangerous disease as myocardial infarction,
- the emergence of unbearable severe pain - stratification of the cardiac aorta. It may also indicate the presence of cardiac neurosis.
Chest pain when pressed
If the upper left chest part hurts or there are discomfort in other areas when pressing, or even light pressure, then in this case, a strong muscle strain.
With the occurrence of aching pain, the appearance of a malignant lesion that affects the respiratory organs is possible.
When pain occurs in the left side of the chest or does not give rest to the right, then the development of pericarditis is possible.
Pathology is accompanied by infectious or inflammatory processes that "attacked" a thin sac that envelops the heart - the pericardium. During the disease, manifestations similar to angina are observed. That is, the patient experiences sharp sensations in the sternum, and also encounters a feeling of strong compression. When both sides of the chest are sore or just the right, uncomfortable feelings can occur in the shoulder, or one of the hands.
In the process of developing dry acute pericarditis, specialists prescribe symptomatic therapy, which uses non-steroidal pharmacology products (Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, etc.), as well as analgesics, which provide an opportunity to eliminate pain syndromes.
In this case, when chest muscles are sore, it is very important to consume potassium, as well as medicines that work to restore metabolic processes.
Quite often, injuries sustained in the chest area cause the onset of this pathology. In the process of the development of the disease, lung tissue is destroyed, and all air is sent to the chest cavity. Thus, if it hurts in the left side of the chest or in the right, then this is not at all surprising. Manifestations can intensify, causing difficulty in breathing, dizziness and a number of other disorders.
This symptom, like burning, can be observed with gastritis, heartburn, stomach ulcers, as well as pleurisy. The chest muscles hurt in women, as well as in men with heart disease.
Most often they are not common, and are localized in one place. Eliminate diseases associated with a malfunction in the functioning of the LCD tract should not be done with Nitroglycerin.
Often over a long period this illness is not paid attention to. But over time, when burning sensations in the central zone of the chest become more persistent, and attacks of nausea occur more often, patients realize that they have a serious disruption in the body.
Therefore, if you observe even a slight burning pain, do not expect it to disappear on its own.
This disease also often causes pulling discomfort. Pulmonary embolism affects the right ventricle of the main human organ - the heart. The manifestations of the disease are very strong, but they do not spread to other areas of the body, but are concentrated in one place.
The main symptom of the development of pathology is the difficulty of breathing. Anesthetics help to eliminate unpleasant manifestations, as with osteochondrosis. But it should be remembered that tablets can only alleviate the condition for a few hours, and serious medical care should not be refused.
In this situation, the patient notices continuous pain in the chest. Most often they are based in its upper zone.
The aorta is a fairly large vessel, which is directed from the heart ventricle located on the left side. As soon as the vessel expands, a diagnosis of aneurysm is made.
The reason for this can be a variety of factors. The pains will appear on their own, and during the exercise of physical activity, their strength of manifestation will increase.
The fight against this disease is performed surgically.
A peptic ulcer that affects the stomach causes pain in the center of the chest, as well as in the larynx. The main cause is ulcers formed on the mucous membranes of the said organ.
Most often, such pathologies are found in smokers, as well as people who drink alcohol. A decrease in pain can be observed after taking antacids. Ordinary baking soda may help in some cases.
These are inflammatory processes that turn into irritable ones that affect the mucous membrane of the chest area, as well as the lungs. With the development of pleurisy, the patient can attack acute pain that occurs when exhaling and inhaling.
Frequent coughing and sneezing are no exception in this case. What to do in a situation if parts of the chest hurt, especially to the left?
First of all, do not delay with a visit to a specialist, so that the symptoms do not significantly worsen.
Mitral valve prolapse
This disease can develop due to a genetic predisposition or congenital pathologies. If we consider acquired, then these causes are myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease, and others. You can remove unpleasant manifestations with Nitroglycerin, as well as potassium and magnesium (Asparkam drug).
Coronary heart disease heart attack
This violation is accompanied by dull pain. It refers to the most dangerous conditions, and requires immediate hospitalization. If with osteochondrosis and pain in the chest, you can use painkillers, then in this case it is better to call a doctor right away.
The manifestation of a heart attack resembles the symptoms of angina pectoris, but the pain in the presence of a heart attack is more pronounced, and their duration is longer. They can appear not only during exercise, but also in the process of rest.
Giving to the hand
Spasms of the pectoral muscles and cramps, with the appearance of uncomfortable sensations in the area of the upper limbs, can be observed with damage to the body with angina pectoris. A person may experience compressive and constricting sensations.
Stressful situations, emotional outbursts and feelings can cause a similar nature of pain.
Sharp stitching pain
As a rule, such a phenomenon is spontaneous. The patient can observe powerful pain “tremors” behind the sternum. This occurs for a variety of reasons. For example, acute pain may appear during inspiration. In addition, the “culprits” are esophagitis, pulmonary infarction or soreness in the chest arises from osteochondrosis. This is not the whole list of pathologies that can cause damage to the female chest, as well as the male one.
Symptoms in which to call an ambulance
If one or more of the above symptoms is present, the patient will not be able to identify the cause of the discomfort without the help of a doctor. Correctly relieve pain in osteochondrosis of the spine, which has overcome the thoracic region or eliminate other pathologies, an experienced specialist will help.
There are a number of cases where you should consult a doctor immediately. Be sure to call an ambulance if:
- piercing pain is observed, causing a feeling of loss of consciousness,
- uncomfortable sensations from the chest area give to the shoulder or zone of the jaw,
- there was a feeling of constriction of the chest, while there is instability of the pulse, vomiting, and also dizziness,
- the pain does not disappear, and lasts more than 15 minutes,
- unpleasant sensations in the cartilage tissue are complemented by high temperature and unstable breathing,
- bloody cough, and chest discomfort.
In which case you should go to the doctor
There are also cases where the patient will be able to independently visit a specialist, but without unnecessary delay. Making an appointment with a doctor is necessary if:
- a burning sensation occurs after a meal,
- when you inhale and cough, pain appears
- when you change the position of the body, the discomfort becomes aggravated,
- in the process of taking the medication, the manifestations of the disease intensify.
In order to identify what exactly causes pain, breast chondrosis, or other pathologies, a series of examinations should be taken, this will allow the specialist to understand which medicine to prescribe, as well as how long the therapeutic course should last.
The main diagnostic methods include:
- ultrasound examination,
- fluorography, as well as the passage of an electrocardiogram,
- gastroscopy and fluoroscopy.
The attending physician may recommend making an appointment with other highly specialized specialists, as well as appointing the passage of other procedures.